Board 7, Group 5
1. Let's talk anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system. Give a review of the functions this system carries out for us. Then give a description of the structures and their functions that make up this system. Include all accessory structures and sensory receptors, glands and muscles. The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis, including protection, temperature regulation, sensory reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. The integumentary system consists of the skin and accessory structures such as hair, nails and glands. The integumentary system is very important because its main organ, the skin covers and protects the entire body. The skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts somewhat as the body’s first line of defense against infection, temperature change or other challenges to homeostasis. A major function of the subcutaneous tissue is to connect the skin to underlying tissues such as muscles. It helps to regulate the body’s temperature and is also a sensory organ. There are also other structures called appendages to the skin. They are sweat and oil glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails. The sweat and oil glands secrete fluids that aid in cooling the body and lubricating the skin. The sensory receptors allow our brain to respond to the senses that they pick up so our bodies are protected. The hair covers the skin to serve as an insulation to help regulate the body’s temperature, as an extra protective layer over the skin, and hair on the scalp provides insulation from cold for the head. The hair of eyelashes and eyebrows helps keep dust and perspiration out of the eyes, and the hair in our nostrils helps keep dust out of the nasal cavities. Any other hair on our bodies no longer serves a function, but is an evolutionary remnant. Nails protect the tips of fingers and toes from mechanical injury. Fingernails give the fingers greater ability to pick up small objects. The nails allow us to react to some of our sensory receptors and allow us to better grip objects we are picking up and moving. The main functions include:
Protects the body’s internal living tissues and organs •
Protects against invasion by infectious organisms
Protects the body from dehydration
Protects the body against abrupt changes in temperature •
Helps excrete waste materials through perspiration
Acts as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold •
Protects the body against sunburns
Generates vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light •
Stores water, fat, and vitamin D
1) Skin :
Skin is extremely important to normal physiologic function, secondary to the roles that it plays in maintaining homeostasis. The seven chief functions of the skin are as follow: 1. Regulation of body temperature: Thermoregulation- Evaporation of sweat & regulation of blood flow to the dermis. Cutaneous sensation - Sensations like touch, pressure, vibration, pain, warmth or coolness. 2. Protection: The skin acts as a physical barrier.
4. Excretion: The skin is involved in the absorption of water-soluble molecules and excretion of water and sweat.
6. Blood reservoir
7. Vitamin D production-UV sunlight & precursor molecule in skin make vitamin D. The skin is the largest and main organ of the body and consists of several kinds of tissues that are structurally arranged to function together. In adults, the skin covers an area of approximately 2 square meters and accounts for 12-15% of one's body weight. It is of variable thickness, averaging 1.5 mm. It is thickest on area of high friction, such as the soles and palms, where it is 6 mm thick. It is thinnest on the eyelids, external genitalia, and tympanic membrane, where it is .5 mm thick. It variable...
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