The Integumentary System
Exercise 1: Structures of the Skin
Fill in the names of the numbered structures in the diagram in the table below the picture.
1 Hair Shaft|7 Hypodermis|
2 Arrector pilli muscle|8 Dermis|
3 Sebaceous(oil) gland|9 Epidermis|
4 Hair follicle|10 Subpapillary vascular plexus|
5 Eccrine sweat gland|11 Dermal papillae|
6 Hair follicle receptor(root hair plexus)|12 Pore|
A. How does the skin tan when exposed to ultraviolet light? When exposed to the sun’s UV rays, your skin’s melanocytes produce melanin, the dark pigment that creates a tan. A tan is your skin’s attempt to prevent UV rays from doing any further damage to the sensitive skin cells in your epidermis.
B. Describe the functions of the epidermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin; it acts as the body's major barrier against the environment.
C. Describe the functions of the sweat glands. The sweat glands secrete transparent liquid (sweat) containing water and salts from the body in order to regulate body temperature. Some types of sweat glands also produce pheromones. Pheromones are chemicals that are released by the body to communicate with or attract others.
D. Compare the structure of the epidermis to that of the dermis. epidermis is the upper layer of the skin whereas dermis is the lower layer of the skin. The main function of epidermis is to protect the skin from fungal infection whereas dermis contains nerve endings which help in sensations.
E. Fill in the following table by either inserting the name of the structure/cell or by giving its function(s):
melanocytes|Makes a pigment for tanning|
Langerhans cells|Ingest foreign substances and are key activators of our immune system.| Tactile Cells|Found on nerve endings|
Stratum lucidum|The Stratum lucidum is the second layer of the epidermis and varies in thickness throughout the body depending mainly on...