Integrative Paper

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Integrative Paper

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Integrative Paper: Discussing Leading Change

Integrative Paper

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Integrative Paper: Discussing Leading Change

The text for this course, Organizational Behavior and Management by John M. Ivanevich, Robert Konopaske and Michael T. Matteson, attempts to use the latest theories, research, and organizational applications while retaining the classic and long-standing work in organizational behavior as the basis for its discussion. It places a great deal of importance on management's understanding of organizational situations and its ability to react by properly interpreting and predicting behavior. Managing organizational change is done by focusing on behavior (individual and group), organizational structure, and processes. On the other hand, Leading Change by John P. Kotter underscores the differences between management and leadership. Strong and effective leadership is required for successful transformations of organizations. Kotter reasons that an unsuccessful transformation can be attributed to errors in the following stages: establishing a sense of urgency, creating the guiding coalition, developing a vision and strategy, communicating the change vision, empowering employees for broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains and producing more change, and anchoring new approaches in the culture. This paper will discuss how the concepts presented in the text relate to the eight stages covered in Leading Change.

Establishing a Sense of Urgency No major organizational change can occur without first establishing a sense of urgency. This sense of urgency must be maintained throughout each of Kotter's stages. A single individual cannot alone create organizational change. Cooperation from others is essential and establishing a sense of urgency is needed to gain that cooperation. With urgency low, it's difficult to put together a group with enough power and credibility to guide the effort or to convince key individuals to spend the time necessary to create and communicate the change vision (Kotter 36). A critical element related to the sense of urgency is complacency. With complacency high, transformations usually go nowhere because few people are even interested in working on the change problem (Kotter 36). Hence, in order to raise the urgency level, the reduction or elimination of complacency is required. Some examples of complacency sources are the absence of a major and visible crisis, low performance standards, and organizational structures that focus employees on narrow functional goals.

Integrative Paper

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Organizational Behavior and Management focuses on management's understanding of employee perceptions, attributions and emotions and how to motivate employees to help achieve organizational objectives. The perceptual process involves an individual's interpretation of different environmental stimuli and his corresponding response. These responses include attitudes, feelings and motivation. Each person makes his own choices and responds differently. Learning about perceptual interpretation helps managers understand why individual differences must be considered at work (Ivanevich 95). These perceptions directly influence a person's attributions. The attribution theory is a process by which individuals attempt to explain the reasons for events. According to the attribution theory, it is the perceived causes of events, not the actual events themselves, that influence people's behavior (Ivanevich 101). Along with an understanding of perceptions and attributions, managers must be cognizant of individual employee emotions. Often, an employee's perceptions and attributions are conveyed through emotions. The concept of emotional intelligence emphasizes four cognitive components: a capacity to perceive emotion, to integrate emotion in thought, to understand emotion, and to manage emotion effectively (Ivanevich 111). Managers that exhibit a high degree of emotional...
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