Integrated Marketing Communications
Communication is defined as transmitting, receiving, and processing information. The parts of a communications model are displayed in Figure 1.2. Components that should be discussed include: • Sender—the person(s) attempting to deliver a message or idea. • Encoding processes—the verbal (words, sounds) and nonverbal (gestures, facial expression, posture) cues that the sender utilizes in dispatching the message. • Transmission device—all of the items that carry the message from the sender to the receiver. • Decoding—takes place when the receiver employs any set of his or her senses (hearing, seeing, feeling, etc.) in the attempt to capture the message. • Receiver—the intended audience for a message. • Feedback—information the sender obtains from the receiver regarding the receiver’s perception or interpretation of a message. • Noise—anything that distorts or disrupts a message. The text uses shoe companies and the advertisement to demonstrate how communication takes place between them and their customers. Some Web sites of various shoe companies that you can use in your class discussion are listed below. Internet Sites of Selected Shoe Companies Reebok (http://www.rbk.com) ASICS (http://www.asics.com) New Balance (http://www.newbalance.com) Skechers (http://www.skechers.com) Senders are companies that manufacture and sell shoes. Encoding occurs when someone (usually the creative) takes the idea and transforms it into an attention-getting mode. Messages travel to audiences via various transmission devices, such as a television, billboard, Sunday paper with a coupon, or a letter to the purchasing agent of a large retail store. Decoding occurs when the receiver’s (consumer’s) senses are touched in some way by the message. Feedback occurs through inquiries, trips to the store, and purchases. Noise is all of the factors that prevent the consumer from seeing the message. A classic example is clutter, which exists when consumers are exposed to hundreds of marketing messages per day, and most are tuned out. Figure 1.2—Displays a model of the marketing communications process. 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Figure 1.3-- Shows examples of communication noise that affects television. Question for Students: Can you think of additional examples of noise in advertising or marketing communications?
Integrated Marketing Communications Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, and sources within a company into a seamless program, which maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost. This integration affects all of a firm’s business-to-business, marketing channel, customerfocused, and internally directed communications. The marketing mix consists of: • Products • Pricing systems • Distribution systems • Promotional programs The promotions mix consists of: • Advertising • Sales promotions (including consumer and trade promotions) • Personal selling activities The IMC promotions mix also includes: • Direct marketing • Public relations programs • Internet marketing • Sponsorship marketing • Database marketing Figure 1.4 displays all of these elements. They must blend together to present a unified message. An Integrated Marketing Communications Plan Figure 1.5—Lists the primary steps required to complete a marketing plan. They include: 1. Situational analysis (examining problems and opportunities in the organization’s external environment and strengths and weaknesses in the firm itself). 2. Defining marketing objectives (sales, market share, competitive position, and customer actions desired). 3. Budget preparation. 4. Finalizing marketing strategies. 5. Evaluation of performance. 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
IMC Components Figure 1.6—Illustrates the IMC model. The foundation of the IMC plan...