Defining integrated curriculum has been a topic of discussion since the turn of the 20th century. Over the last hundred years, theorists offered three basic categories for interdisciplinary work; they defined the categories similarly, although the categories often had different names. Integration seemed to be a matter of degree and method. Integration: The unification of all subjects and experiences. There I have defined three approaches to integration
c) Tran disciplinary Integration
Multidisciplinary approaches focus primarily on the disciplines. Teachers who use this approach organize standards from the disciplines around a theme. There are many different ways to create multidisciplinary curriculum, and they tend to differ in the level of intensity of the inteation effort. The given descriptions outline different approaches to the multidisciplinary perspective.
The Multidisciplinary Model
The give model of multidisciplinary integration shows, the relationship of different subjects to each other and to a common theme.
Interdisciplinary Integration: When teachers integrate the subdisciplines within a subject area, they are using an interdisciplinary integration approach. Integrating reading, writing, and oral communication in language arts is a common example. Teachers often integrate history, geography, economics, and government in an interdisciplinary social studies program. Integrated science integrates the perspectives of subdisciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science. Through this integration, teachers expect students to understand the connections between the different subdisciplines and their relationship to the real world. i) Fusion: In this multidisciplinary integration approach, teachers fuse skills, knowledge, or even attitudes into the regular school curriculum. In some schools, for example, students learn respect for the environment in every subject area. Students begin each week promising to be peaceful, respectful, and responsible. They follow a list of responsibilities and learn about peace in their classes. In reading, for example, students analyze positive characteristics of people in stories; in social studies, they learn the importance of cultures working together.
ii) Service Learning: Service learning that involves community projects that occur during class time falls under the category of multidisciplinary integration. It is motivating for students to be a part of social services.
iii) Learning Centers/Parallel Disciplines: A popular way to integrate the curriculum is to address a topic or theme through the lenses of several different subject areas. In the higher classes, students usually study a topic or theme in different classrooms. This may take the form of parallel disciplines; teachers sequence their content to match the content in other classrooms. Students often experience Pakistani literature and Pakistani history as parallel disciplines.
iv) Theme-Based Units: Some educators go beyond sequencing content and plan collaboratively for a multidisciplinary unit. Educators define this more intensive way of working with a theme as “theme-based.” Often three or more subject areas are involved in the study, and the unit ends with an integrated culminating activity. Units of several weeks' duration may emerge from this process, and the whole school may be involved. A theme-based unit involving the whole school may be independent of the regular school schedule. Under this way of working on an event with multistage students, we may observe numerous benefits, such as the following: • Students exhibited excellent on-task behavior.
• Students worked collaboratively.
• Multistage teams formed within the multistage classes. • Students were engrossed both as...