ISSN 0315-5986 j EISSN 1916-0615
Scheduling Security Personnel for the Vancouver 2010
Winter Olympic Games
Bohdan L. Kaluzny and Alan Hill
Defence Research & Development Canada, Centre for Operational Research & Analysis, 101 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K2, e-mail: Bohdan.Kaluzny@drdc-rddc.gc.ca; Alan.Hill@drdc-rddc.gc.ca
Abstract—The Vancouver 2010 Integrated Security Unit (V2010-ISU) ensured security during the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games. Over six thousand Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) ofﬁcers provided round-the-clock security for 30 venues and 27 functions. The V2010-ISU needed to develop shift schedules for the RCMP ofﬁcers so that not only were hourly security requirements met, but work shifts needed to satisfy a variety of scheduling constraints (shift lengths, start times, rest periods, etc.). As the number of personnel that were required for each hour at each venue was anticipated to change, V2010-ISU planners required an automated means of generating efﬁcient schedules quickly. This paper details the mathematical programming model which formed the basis of a software tool that was developed to assist security planners in personnel scheduling. It provides a novel mathematical formulation for the technique of applying integer programming to scheduling problems, in the context of an important practical application. Keywords Integer program, Olympics, personnel scheduling problem, group scheduling, large event security.
In July 2003, the International Olympic Committee elected
Vancouver as the Host City for the XXI Olympic Winter
Games in 2010. Shortly thereafter, the Vancouver 2010
Integrated Security Unit (V2010-ISU) was setup to ensure
security during the Olympic Games. This unit was led by the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and consisted of
members of the RCMP, Vancouver Police Department, West
Vancouver Police Department and the Canadian Forces (CF).
In 2009 V2010-ISU mobilization planners, leveraging
national science & technology resources, approached Defence
Research & Development Canada (DRDC) Centre for
Operational Research & Analysis (CORA) with a
shift-scheduling problem: shift schedules for over six thousand RCMP ofﬁcers needed to be developed to provide security for 57 venues and functions (for the remainder of the paper the
term venue is used in a general sense to mean either venue or function). These schedules were a primary driver of many
other aspects of security planning such as transportation planning and logistics support.
Received February 2011; Revision May 2011; Accepted July 2011
Highlight features of the V2010-ISU personnel scheduling
Subject matter experts have allocated a maximum number of
ofﬁcers per venue.
Subject matter experts have determined the number of personnel that are required for each hour at each venue. RCMP ofﬁcers will be assigned to work at only one venue for the duration of the time period.
Ofﬁcers will be grouped into three watches per venue. Each watch follows a cyclical work pattern: work four consecutive days followed by two days off. On any given day, two of three watches work regular shifts while the third watch may be
called upon for off-day overtime duty to fulﬁll security
demands. Even though ofﬁcers are grouped into watches,
their individual shifts may vary.
The schedules are further constrained by various limitations on shift lengths, start and end times, and required rest periods.
Table 1 lists some of the more prominent Vancouver 2010
Olympic venues that required round-the-clock security. The
hourly demands of the various venues were quite large and
could vary greatly. They were often diverse and non-cyclic. To understand the complexity of the problem, consider a venue
which was code-named Quebec (for security reasons venue
names were masked by the V2010-ISU)....