Instructor Guide 10s and 18s

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INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FIREFIGHTER SAFETY

TOPIC: The "10 Standard Firefighting Orders"
The “18 Fire Situations that Shout "Watch Out"
LCES

TIME FRAME: 1 Hour

LEVEL:1

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVE:

Condition: A written or oral quiz

Behavior: The student will list or recite the 10 standard orders.

Standard: With a minimum of 70% accuracy

REFERENCES: Wildland Firefighting, Clayton, Day and McFadden, Chapter 12 IFSTA, Ground Cover Fire Fighting Practices, 2nd Edition, Chapter 6

MATERIALS NEEDED: Handouts

PREPARATION: Wildland firefighting is a dangerous job. It requires that you be thoroughly familiar and aware of the hazards involved on the fire line. Your life and the lives of others may depend upon your ability to recognize a dangerous situation before it develops.

The common thread between all fire fatalities and near misses in the past twenty years is lack of or inadequate lookouts, communications, escape routes and safety zones (LCES). LCES is a systems approach. All components of LCES must be used. The system is interdependent of all components. Awareness of each component and how they interact is necessary to provide the safest working environment.

INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FIREFIGHTER SAFETY

I. THE "10 STANDARD FIREFIGHTING ORDERS"
A. Fight fire aggressively, but Provide for
Safety first.
B. Inform Crew of Planned Escape Routes.
C. Remain Calm, Be Alert, Think Clearly, Act
Decisively.
D. Establish Lookouts in Hazardous Situations.
E. Observe Personally, Use Scouts, Always
Know What Fire is Doing.
F. Review Fire Weather Conditions and
Forecasts.
G. Decide Actions Based on Current and
Expected Fire Behavior.
H. Explain Orders Clearly and Be Sure They are
Understood.
I. Remain in Control of Crew at All Times.
J. Stay in Constant Communications with Crew,
Supervisor and Adjoining Forces.

II. "18 FIRE SITUATIONS THAT SHOUT-WATCH OUT! USE CAUTION"
A. THE FIRE HAS NOT BEEN SCOUTED AND SIZED UP.
1. Scout by using aerial recon or ground observation.
2. Look for fire size and direction, fuel types,
topography, hazards, safety zones and escape routes.
B. YOU ARE IN COUNTRY YOU HAVE NOT SEEN IN DAYLIGHT
1. Stay with your crew, don't get lost.
2. Advance scouting is essential.
a) Proceed slowly and carefully.
b) Watch for sheer drop-offs, shafts, rock slides, etc.
3. Use headlamps and flashlights for all night activities.
4. Maintain communications with your fireline supervisor.
5. Stay close to the fireline.
a) Can use hoselays, dozerlines, and handlines to follow.
b) Avoid taking "shortcuts".
C. SAFETY ZONES AND ESCAPE ROUTES HAVE NOT BEEN IDENTIFIED
1. Safety zone must be large enough for entire crew
a) Meadows
b) Rock slides
c) Dirt, barren areas
d) Creeks, river bottoms
e) Swamps
2. Escape routes lead to safety zones
INSTRUCTOR GUIDE FIREFIGHTER SAFETY

a) Shortest and most direct route to safety zone
b) Relatively easy to travel
c) Make them known to all personnel
D. YOU ARE IN AN AREA WHERE YOU ARE UNFAMILIAR WITH LOCAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FIRE BEHAVIOR. 1. Keep informed on forecasts; interpret what they mean.
2. One of the most important factors affecting fire behavior is weather. It is usually broken down into three parts. a) Temperature
b) Relative humidity
c) Wind
1) Each has a direct effect upon the burning conditions
3. Watch for nature's danger signals, mirages, dust devils, etc. 4. Maintain communications with your supervisor
E. YOU ARE UNIFORMED ON STRATEGY, TACTICS AND HAZARDS
1. Strategy: overall plan to achieve the fire suppression objectives 2. Tactics: specific actions done to suppress the fire
3. Hazards in relation to strategy and tactics
a) Heavy fuels
b) Topographic features such as slopes and chimneys
c) Falling operations
d) Firing operations
4....
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