Insat 1A [SSL]
Insat-1 was a multi-purpose satellite system to provide two high power TV broadcast and twelve telecommunications national coverage transponders, in addition to also providing meteorological services. The Insat-1A was launched by a Delta in April 1982 but was abandoned in September 1983 when its attitude control propellant was exhausted. When Insat-1B was launched on 30 August 1983, it almost suffered the same fate as the Insat-1A. It was not until mid-September that Ford and Indian controllers succeeded in deploying its solar array. By then it had been stationed at 74°E in place of Insat-1A. Full operational capability was achieved in October 1983. It continued to operate into 1990 with all its 4375 two-way voice or equivalentcircuits in use. Around 36,000 earth images were returned. Eleven of its 12 C-band transponder and its two S-band transponders provided direct nationwide TV & communicationsto thousands of remote villages, plus a detailed weather and disaster-warning service. Around 35,000 Indian built 3 to 3.6 meterdiameter, earth receive only terminals were in place to supply rural communities with social andeducational programs. It was relegated to spare status on 17 July 1990 by the Insat-1D. The Insat-1B was finally removed fromGEO in August 1993, after being replaced at 93.5°E by Insat-2B. Total cost of Insat-1B and its backup Insat-1C, including the PAM-D launch was estimated at$140 million. The Insat-1C satellite was launched on 21 July 1988 from Kourou for location at 93.5°E to bring the Insat system up to full capacity. Half of the 12 C-band transponders and its two S-band transponders were lost when a power system failure knocked outone of the two buses, but the meteorological earth images and its data collection systems were both fully operational. Earth lock was lost 22 November 1989 and the satellite was abandoned. Reported insurance payout was$70 million. The specification for the Insat-1D is the same as the Insat-1B but with...
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