Latest innovations have developed new materials and better technologies in the field of construction. The need of the hour is the replacement of costly and scarce conventional building materials by innovative, cost effective and environment friendly alternate building materials. Here we see about the
Insulating concrete forms (ICF)
Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)
Structural insulated panels (SIP)
By implementing these technologies gives birth to many sub level new engineering concepts. These engineering conceptual methods now days become very important, latest practically applied fields in innovative constructions. The major problem by the conventional structures due to various aspects can be resolved by incorporating these techniques. By using these technologies we can have a great space for research work as how these implemented things work on.
INNOVATIVE BUILDING MATERIALS
India’s present housing shortage is estimated to be as high as 31.1 million units as per 2001 Census and out of these shortage 24 million units are in rural area and 7.1 million units in urban areas. The Govt. of India has targeted the year 2010 for providing Housing for All. In 1998, Government of India announced a National Housing and Habitat Policy which aims at providing “Housing for All” and facilitating the construction of 20 lakh additional housing units annually, with emphasis on extending benefits to the poor and the deprived. Apart from the above housing needs, nearly 1% of the housing stock in the country is destroyed every year due to natural hazards. Such large scale housing construction activities require huge amount of money. Out of the total cost of house construction, building materials contribute to about 70 percent costs in developing countries like India. Therefore, we need to replace the costly and scarce conventional building materials. The new material should be environment friendly and preferably utilize industrial/agro wastes because as a result of rapid industrialization. Large number of innovative building materials developed through intensive research efforts during last three to four decades satisfies functional as well as specification requirements of conventional materials/techniques and provide an avenue for the construction job to complete faster more durable and to bring down the cost too .Some of the innovative building materials which are user friendly and cost effective are seen below.
INSULATING CONCRETE FORMS
Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) are formwork for concrete that stays in place as permanent building insulation for energy-efficient, cast-in-place, reinforced concrete walls, floors, and roofs. The forms are interlocking modular units that are dry-stacked (without mortar) and filled with concrete. The forms lock together serve to create a form for the structural walls of a building. Concrete is pumped into the cavity to form the structural element of the walls. Usually reinforcing steel (rebar) is added before concrete placement to give the resulting walls flexural strength, similar to bridges and high-rise buildings made of concrete The forms are filled with concrete in 1-4 foot "lifts" to reduce the risk of blowouts like with other concrete formwork. After the concrete has cured, or firmed up, the forms are left in place permanently for the following reasons:
Thermal and acoustic insulation
Space to run electrical conduit and plumbing. The foam on either side of the forms can easily accommodate electrical and plumbing installations.
Backing for gypsum boards on the interior and stucco, brick, or other siding on the exterior Types of systems
ICFs can be made from a variety of materials:
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) - most common
Cement-bonded wood fibre
Cement-bonded polystyrene beads
The majority of forms are made of foam insulation, such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), and are either separate panels...
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