While looking into the history of mankind, we can see that different social transformation have been witnessed by each century. Those transformations touch each and every aspect of the society, and according to it there has been new emphasis and shift in educational process. According to Selvam (2009), “Education is the key to a vibrant and prosperous India seeking to maximize the contributions of all its citizens and embracing the richness and possibilities that our nation’s diversity affords, as the new century begins.” Education is one of the most important building blocks for a nation, serving as an instrument of economic and social development. Within this context, the all important role of the teacher is well recognised, as imparter of knowledge and information to students who are the future citizens of tomorrow. In India, the role of the teacher as not only an educator but also a guide has been emphasised through the centuries. Education is one of the oldest professions and through this profession educated people of a country are produced. It was believed that ‘teachers are born and not made’, but the teacher education has proved that teachers can also be made. Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skills that are required to perform their tasks effectively in the school and classroom. It is often divide into pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher education programme. The teaching profession has a vast scope to serve the society to transform itself into a better society of tomorrow. Teacher education is the professional preparation, in pedagogy, of those who want to enter the profession of teaching. This may be traditional or closed type with objectivist orientation, with focuses on the product of learning, and the progressive or open type with an orientation of subjectivity of the pupils focusing on the process of learning. Initial Teacher Education in many countries takes place largely or exclusively in institutions of Higher Education. According to NCFTE (1996-97), the general objectives of teacher education programme are: * To develop a critical awareness among the teachers and teacher educators regarding the realities of Indian life. * To enable them to act as agents of modernization, social change and development and transmittance of the national and cultural heritage. * To develop among them the capabilities needed for performing their role in a dynamic society in order to meet the challenges of continuity and change. * To develop competencies and skills needed for becoming an effective teacher. * To develop interest and skills for undertaking action research/research. * To plan and organise for capacity building with a view to enabling them to look into the students’ needs in physical education and helping them in this regard.
The teachers have a sacred responsibility for the total development of the children in all aspects professing democratic, secular and socialistic values in them. Therefore it is not enough that a student teacher is only equipped to meet varied needs of pupil at school, what is required is that along with theoretical knowledge there should be greater emphasis on the practical aspects of the various components of teacher education so that it can be linked to the needs of the community and national development.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF VARIOUS COMMISSIONS:
Education Commission (1964-66) emphasised on the recognition of education as an independent discipline and for that, departments of education should be established in selective universities in order to develop teacher education studies and research in education through collaboration with other university disciplines. (Inter – disciplinary approach.) Extension work, alumni association, practice in active collaboration with selected schools, implementation of phased...