Innovation

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CREATIVITY REATIVITY

Report produced for the EC funded project INNOREGIO: dissemination of innovation and knowledge management techniques by Dr

Eleni Sefertzi

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A N U A R Y

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CREATIVITY

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Contents
1 Description
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 What is Creativity Objectives of Creativity Description /structure of the methodology /alternative solutions Expected results /benefits Characteristics of providers

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Application
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Where Creativity development has been applied Types of firms /organisations concerned Implementation cost Conditions for implementation

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Implementation
Brainstorming Story boarding Lotus Blossom Checklists Morphological Analysis Mapping Process The Excursion Technique Computer-based creativity techniques Artificial Intelligence models of creativity Idea processors software Visualisation and graphical systems Spatial representation tools

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Bibliographic references

Annexes
Table 1: Stimulus to extend perspective to approach a problem Table 2: Brainstorming Phases Table 3: Osborn’s Checklist Figure 1: Lotus Blossom sample

INNOREGIO project

Dr E. Sefertzi

CREATIVITY

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1.1

DESCRIPTION
What is Creativity
There are many definitions of creativity. A number of them suggest that creativity is the generation of imaginative new ideas (Newell and Shaw 1972), involving a radical newness innovation or solution to a problem, and a radical reformulation of problems. Other definitions propose that a creative solution can simply integrate existing knowledge in a different way. A third set of definitions proposes that a creative solution, either new or recombined, must have value (Higgins 1999). A novel idea is not a creative idea unless it is valuable or it implies positive evaluation. Also, according to dt ogilvie (1998), imagination, which involves the generation of ideas not previously available as well as the generation of different ways of seeing events, is important to achieve creative actions. To combine this variety of definitions, we can say that creativity involves the generation of new ideas or the recombination of known elements into something new, providing valuable solutions to a problem. It also involves motivation and emotion. Creativity “is a fundamental feature of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in everyday capacities such as the association of ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching a structured problem-space, and reflecting self-criticism. It involves not only a cognitive dimension (the generation of new ideas) but also motivation and emotion, and is closely linked to cultural context and personality factors.” (Boden 1998). According to Boden (1998), there are three main types of creativity, involving different ways of generating the novel ideas: a) The “combinational” creativity that involves new combinations of familiar ideas. b) The “exploratory” creativity that involves the generation of new ideas by the exploration of structured concepts. c) The “transformational” creativity that involves the transformation of some dimension of the structure, so that new structures can be generated. Creative thinking in a disciplined manner can play a real role in innovation. “Creativity and innovation are normally complementary activities, since creativity generates the basis of innovation, which, in its development, raises difficulties that must be solved once again, with creativity…It is not possible to conceive innovation without creative ideas, as these are the starting point.” (European Commission 1998). Innovation results when creativity occurs within the right organisational culture. The right organisational culture is one that provides through creativity processes (creative techniques) the possibilities for the development of personal and group creativity skills. We can define creativity IMT as the establishment of skills by implementing creativity generation techniques.

1.2 Objectives of...
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