INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. Soon after its establishmentPakistan faced number of problems. Most of the problems of Pakistan were related withPakistan dispute with India, such as the accession of the princely states, canal Water dispute, refugees' problems and distribution of armed and military assets. Infect most of these problems were deliberately created by India itself so that Pakistan would notmaintain its independent status and soon merged with India. (Nehru told General Sir Frank Messervy in 1945, “his deliberate plan would be to allow Jinnah to have hisPakistan, end gradually makes things so impossible economically and otherwise for Pakistan that they have to come on their banded knees and asked to be allowed back toIndia. 1.RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16, 1947):
The Indian Independence Act 1947 provided the formation of two boundarycommissions for the division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal between India andPakistan. Each boundary commission consisted of representatives from India andPakistan.Representatives of Punjab Boundary Commission PakistanIndia
Justice Din MuhammadJustice Maher Chand MuhajanJustice Muhammad MunirJustice Tej SinghRepresentatives Bengal Boundary Commission PakistanIndia
Justice Abu SalehJustice C. C. BiswasMuhammad IkramJustice B.K MukarjeeJustice S.A RehmanSir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both the boundarycommissions. Both India and Pakistan were agreed to accept the decision of Radcliff incase of deadlock. As expected the representatives of India and Pakistan were unable toreach on an agreement and Radcliff announced his own decisions on 16th August 1947. Analysis of the Boundary Award
The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan as cliff handed over number of Muslim majority areas which were contiguous to the boundary of Pakistan to India butnone out the Hindu majority areas to Pakistan; Award also paved the way for the disputes between India and Pakistan over Kashmir and Canal Water.
* Radcliff Award Handed over Some of the Muslim Majority Areas that wereContiguous to the Boundary of Pakistan to India: These areas included.
* Sub-district of Ajnala in Amritsar district
* Sub-district of Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district
* Sub-district of Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district
* Sub-district of Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur districtRadcliff award, allotted sixty-two percent of the area of undivided Punjab to India, withfifty-five percent of the population.
Radcliff Award Paved the Way for the Accession of Kashmir with India:Gurdaspur was a district contiguous to Pakistan. Out of its four Sub-District Gurdaspur,Batala and shakergarh were the Muslim majority and Pathankot was a non-Muslimmajority sub-district. At the time of partition the only rail and road communication between India and Kashmir was possible through the district of Gurdaspur, if Radcliff had only awarded the Hindu majority sub-district of Pathankot to India still it would nothave had access to the state of Kashmir; by assigning two Muslim majority sub-district of Baal and Gurdaspur Radcliff provided India a link with Kashmir. In 1948 India enteredits forces in Kashmir through Gurdaspur and annexed the state to India.
The Decision of the Punjab Boundary Commission Caused the Canal Water Dispute between India and Pakistan: Water of five rivers not only gave Punjab its name but the economic life of Punjab is also depending on these rivers. Out of these riversthree rivers namely Indus, Jhelum and Chenab enter in Punjab from Kashmir whereastwo rivers Ravi and Sutlej enter from Indian held Punjab. Radcliff drew the boundary linein such a way that it cut across the river and canals; making India and Pakistan upper andlower beneficiaries. Radcliff also handed over the Ferozepur and Madupur head works toIndia. Ferozepur head works that was ...