Any successful project management, regardless of the organizational structure, is only as good as the individuals and leaders who are managing the key functions. Project management is not a single-person operation; it requires a group of individuals dedicated to the achievement of a specific goal. * People trained in single-line-of-command organizations find it hard to serve more than one boss. Performance is difficult for many individuals in the project environment because it represents a change in the way of doing business. Individuals, regardless of how competent they are, find it difficult to adapt continually to a changing situation in which they report to multiple managers.
* People may give lip service to teamwork, but not really know how to develop and maintain a good working team. Project management is successful only if the project manager and his team are totally dedicated to the successful completion of the project. This requires each team member of the project team and office to have a good understanding of the fundamental project requirements. Project managers should have both business management and technical expertise. They must understand the fundamental principles of management, especially those involving the rapid development of temporary communication channels. Project managers must understand the technical implications of a problem, since they are ultimately responsible for all decision-making.
* Project and functional managers sometimes tend to compete rather than cooperate with each other. One of the major performance problems lies in the project–functional interface, where an individual suddenly finds himself reporting to two bosses, the functional manager and the project manager. If the functional manager and the project manager are in agreement about the work to be accomplished, then performance may not be hampered.
* Individuals must learn to do more “managing” of themselves. Many individuals thrive on temporary assignments because it gives them a “chance for glory.” Some employees might consider the chance for glory more important than the project. For example, an employee may pay no attention to the instructions of the project manager and instead perform the task his own way. In this situation, the employee wants only to be recognized as an achiever and really does not care if the project is a success or failure, as long as he still has a functional home to return to where he will be identified as an achiever with good ideas.
Executives can severely hinder project managers by limiting their authority to select and organize (when necessary) a project office and team. Therefore I agree with Cleland’s statement. Any problem can be solved by selecting a man who already has a high position of responsibility or placing him high enough in the organization, by assigning him a title as important-sounding as those of functional managers, and by supporting him in his dealings with functional managers. No project type or organization type play a dominant role in this case.
All the statements are true because the major responsibility of the project manager and the project office personnel is the integration of work across the functional lines of the organization. This could be achieved only when project office is really flexible. The project office is developed to support the project manager in carrying out his duties. Both have to Interpret, communicate, and require compliance with the contract, the approved plan, project procedures, and directives of the client. Maintain personal control of adherence to contract warranty and guarantee provisions. Closely monitor project activities for conformity to contract scope provisions. Establish change notice procedure to evaluate and communicate scope changes. Under minimum supervision establishes the priorities for and directs the efforts of personnel (including their consultants or contractors) involved or to be...