Infrastructure and Rural - Urban Development.

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Infrastructures are basic essential services that should be put in place to enable development to occur. Socio-economic development can be facilitated and accelerated by the presence of social and economic infrastructures. If these facilities and services are not in place, development will be very difficult and in fact can be likened to a very scarce commodity that can only be secured at a very high price and cost. Nigeria Public spending have been geared towards the provision of infrastructures and social services such as schools, hospitals, electricity, water supply etc, while economic activities such as deliberately establishing manufacturing and processing industries and introducing or expanding rural industries have either been neglected or de-emphasized. Generally, while governments have tried to provide some social services they have left the provision of economic activities almost entirely to the private sector.

Furthermore, the pattern of distribution of socio-economic infrastructure exhibits an urban rather than a rural location bias which further helps to increase rural poverty. The absence of these amenities constitute push factors facilitating the migration of rural dwellers into urban centers, resulting to population explosion in most urban cities in Nigeria. Consequently the existing urban services are overstrained which often times lead to total collapse. A large proportion of the population does not have reasonable access to safe and ample water supply, and neither do they have the means for hygienic waste disposal, etc. Kalbermatten (1982) has shown that these two services are essential for a healthy and productive life. According to Olotuah (2002), The demand for Urban services in Nigeria has grown over the years but the overall quality and coverage of public services have deteriorated. It is now widely recognized that there exists an economic, social and environmental Inter-dependence between urban and rural areas and a need for balanced and mutually supportive approach to development of the two areas. The discrete consideration of rural development as completely distinct from urban development is no longer valid. In recognition of the important roles socio-economic infrastructures play in the overall development of any society, this paper shall evaluate the effects of social and economic infrastructure on urban-rural development in Nigeria. Explanation of key words:

The concept of development is a multifaceted phenomenon which compasses a number of spheres within its fold, this is why we have things like economic development, political development, and social dimensions of development. Development is concerned with change, transformation, forward movement, and whatever that has to do with general betterment of the populace. Development as a concept has been subjected to various theoretical interpretations and empirical operationalization. Consequently, it eludes any precise definition. Nonetheless, most students of change would agree with the notion that development is a process by which a continuous increase in a system's efficiency produces the conditions which result in general up-liftment. Up-liftment in this context could be material and quantitative while it could also be psychological and qualitative in which case it is hardly quantifiable. In essence, development is that process, which is concerned with the general improvement of man's living condition. Rural Development is a determined and conscious attempt to focus on the general upliftment of man's living condition in the rural areas.
Rural Areas
This refers to a backward and sometimes stagnated settlements that do not respond to natural and social...
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