General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience to stop anybody they know from smoking to prevent damage to their health.
Organizational Pattern: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence.
I. Attention step:
You may wonder what our future generation may look like because of the effects of smoking. According to a study of teen smokers, young men who smoke may be both compromising their fertility and increasing their risk of fathering a child with genetic abnormalities due to sperm mutations in smokers. Males who smoke have a cough reflex that is slower to react than nonsmoking males. A person’s reflex to cough is a defensive action that prevents foreign material from entering the respiratory tract and helps to remove mucus from the airways. Women who smoke may also have reduced fertility. One study found that 38% of nonsmoking women conceived in their first cycle compared with 28% of smokers. Smokers were 3.4 times more likely than non-smokers to have taken more than a year to conceive. Since 40% of you are tobacco users and 80% of you have a member at home or a friend who are tobacco users, you should be aware of the long-term effects. Transition: As young adults, we should try our best to stop people from smoking to prevent an increase in diseases and deaths.
II. Need Step: In the United States, cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable mobility and mortality and results in approximately 430,000 deaths each year.
A. There are many harmful ingredients in cigarettes.
a. Scientists have discovered that ammonia helps you absorb
more nicotine, keeping you hooked on smoking.
b. It is a drug in tobacco that makes smoking a powerful addiction. 2. Arsenic: This is a deadly poison that makes your lips burn, and gives you bad breath.
3. Benzene: This is a cancer-causing chemical used to make everything from pesticides to detergent to gasoline.
4. Cadmium: Causes damage to the liver, kidneys, and brain, and stays in the body for years.
5. Lead: Lead poisoning stunts your growth, makes you vomit, and damages your brain.
B. Tobacco leaves long-term effects such as death, heart disease, cancer, lung disease, reproductive damage, and birth defects.
1. Tobacco kills more people through heart disease and stroke than it does through cancer.
2. There are many different types of heart diseases.
a. Hypertension: High blood pressure
b. Congestive heart failure: Ineffective pumping of the heart leads to an accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
c. Coronary heart disease: Narrowed arteries lead to heart attack and death.
d. Heart attacks and congestive heart failure.
e. Blocked blood vessels.
f. Strokes: Blocked blood flow to the brain or bleeding in the brain. 3. There are many different types of cancers involved.
a. Lung (Primarily smoking related)
b. Upper respiratory tract (Primarily smoking related)
c. Larynx (Smoking or spit tobacco)
d. Mouth (Smoking or spit tobacco)
e. Throat (Smoking or spit tobacco)
f. Stomach (Primarily spit tobacco related)
g. Pancreas (Smoking or spit tobacco)
h. Kidney (Smoking or spit tobacco)
i. Bladder (Smoking or spit tobacco)
j. Cervix (Primarily smoking related, since few women chew
4. One may also develop lung disease.
a. Emphysema: The very small airways (bronchioles) that join the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs lose elasticity. Patient loses ability to exhale fully, and chemical balance in the blood is disturbed. There is no cure for emphysema.
b. Chronic bronchitis: The airways of the lungs change shape and size and the mucous glands are enlarged, causing coughing and production of sputum.
5. Reproductive Damage
a. Abnormal sperm cells