PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN
INFANCY AND TODDLERHOOD
The Sequence of Motor Development
1. Distinguish between gross and fine motor development, and provide examples of each. (pp. 104–105)
2. When should parents become concerned about a child’s motor development? (p. 105)
Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems
1. According to the dynamic systems theory of motor development, mastery of motor skills involves acquisition of increasingly complex systems of action. Explain what this means. (p. 105)
2. List four factors that contribute to the development of each new motor skill. (p. 105)
3. True or False: In one study, researchers found that 8-week-olds violated the cephalocaudal trend by reaching for toys with their feet at least a month earlier than with their hands. (p. 106)
4. Give at least one example of how cultural variations in infant-rearing practices affect motor development.
5. The current Western practice of having babies sleep on their backs to protect against SIDS (advances / delays) gross motor milestones of rolling, sitting, and crawling. (p. 106)
Fine Motor Development: Reaching and Grasping
1. True or False: Of all motor skills, reaching may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development. (p. 106)
2. Match the following terms to the appropriate definition. (p. 106)
_____ Well-coordinated movement in which infants use the thumb 1. Prereaching
and forefinger opposably 2. Ulnar grasp
_____ Poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object 3. Pincer grasp
_____ Clumsy motion in which the fingers close against the palm
1. Describe changes in auditory perception over the first year that prepare infants to acquire language.
1. What is depth perception, and why is it important in infant development? (p. 108)... [continues]
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