Information Technology Applications

Topics: Electronic commerce, Data management, Supply chain management Pages: 93 (12765 words) Published: May 9, 2013
IT Applications in Oil & Gas
Dr. Ashish Bharadwaj

Introduction to Information Systems Management


Today’s Business Environment

Characterized by:
− Rapid Change − Complexity − (Social) Global Economy − Hyper-competition − Customer Focus

Businesses face pressure to produce more with fewer resources

Organizational Responses
• •

• •

Pressures provoke proactive and reactive organizational responses. Business responses to pressures may involve use of Information Technology and Information Systems. In some cases, IT is the only solution to business pressures. Knowledge of IT capabilities is essential to today’s businesspeople.

Business Pressures and Organizational Responses

Why Should You Learn About IT?
• • • •

What can be done with IT and the consequences of using IT are very interesting. Organizational structure, management, and business processes are often changed with IT. Career opportunities are abundant in IT. IT affects every business functional area.

Some Key Definitions
• • •

Data: raw facts; collected, not organized. Information: data organized in a meaningful way. Knowledge: information organized to convey understanding, experiences, accumulated learning, or expertise.

What is an Information System?

A system that collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information. Data Calculations


Collect Inputs

Process Produce And Outputs Transform Store


What Makes Information Useful?
• • •

It is accurate
− Freeof errors

It is relevant
− Applies to the issue under study

It is complete
− Includes everything needed

• •

It is timely
− Available when needed

It is flexible
− Can be viewed in various ways

It is verifiable
− Basis for results can be traced

It is reliable
− Results are always consistent

It is accessible
− All those who need the information can get to it

It is secure
− Free from contamination (accidental or deliberate)

What is Meant by a “Computer-Based Information System”? •

An information system using computer and telecommunications technology to perform its intended tasks. − Employs some combination of hardware, software, database, network, procedures, and people.

An information system developed to provide a solution to a business problem.

Organizations Have High Expectations of Their Information Systems • •

Fast, accurate processing of business transactions. Storage, retrieval, analysis, and data sharing to − Increase communication − Reduce overload − Span organizational boundaries − Support and improve decision making.

Distinctive capabilities providing competitive advantage.

Key Technical Trends to Monitor
• • • • • • • •

Constantly improving cost-performance ratio Increasing storage and memory User friendly interfaces Client/server architecture Network computers Analytics & Big Data Intranets and extranets Data warehousing

• • • • • • • • •

Data mining Object-oriented environment Electronic document management Multimedia Intelligent systems Mobility Cloud computing Electronic commerce Social Media

Using IT Strategically

Businesses today must understand how IT can shape and refine business strategy − Porter’s Strategic Analysis Model
• Helps in understanding strategic forces affecting organizations in particular industries • IT can be applied to strengthen and support a specific business strategy

− Value Chain
• Helps in identifying ways IT can improve the quality and efficiency of organizational processes

Case Example






• • •

Today’s businesses face myriad pressures. Information technology provides tools and capabilities to respond to those pressures. Knowledge of IT and its applications helps businesspeople develop business strategies that effectively employ IT.

Functional & Enterprise Systems

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