Nowadays, the change of the social life is inseparable from the contribution of social science and technology. Information systems as a dominant force generated by the Information Science and Technology are the leading factor in the advanced modern science and technology system. The power of information has quickly changed the society, has influenced people's ways of living and ways of working. Modern information system relies on technical part including information technology and information contents such as people's activities including decision making, management and support operations. The information system promote efficiency of work and improve quality of life. This article will address the information systems that have changed the way we collaborate and work in significant ways from two aspects: the printing press and the virtual organisation.
The invention of the printing press and its dissemination around the world is hailed as one of the most influential events in between the tenth century and the twentieth century. The printing revolution has a great influence on people's lives. It helped society enter into the modern period of information. (Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. ,1980)
Printing press has promoted the popularity of books in an extraordinary way. It helped to produce books in large quantity at low cost in a short time. In return, availability of books to ordinary people in society stimulated the development and reform in religions. Printing press is regarded as an important step in the democratization of knowledge (Howard Rheingold, 2009) due to the mass production of the printed version, printed books retained its momentum to thrive. Printed version over took the handwritten version, which faced to extinction because of its low productivity. Owing to the wide dissemination of printed books, the number of book readers increased. Church academic monopoly had been challenged in the past. Sacred writings priority is gradually replaced by the humanist scholar works. The success of printing was widely disseminated advocating religious reform in Europe. In 1517 before Martin Luther's protest, printed Bibles in different native languages were available, religious reform matured. The truth of the Gospel was no longer an exclusive use among a small number of privileged people. Ordinary people could also access to printed books. however the spiritual beliefs were different in different countries. The Roman Church could no longer maintain its supreme hierarchic leader ship. The purpose of the protestant reformation is to correct those flaws of the Catholic chuck, especially the sale of indulgences. Since the printings of indulgences were available, sales of indulgences became profitable. At the same time, the Protestants also used printed brochures, flyers and notices, etc., to widely disseminate their ideas and proposals. If there were no printing press, protestant claim could only be heard in local areas. Without the formation of an international important movement, to end the monopoly of the clergy on the academic, and to demolish ignorance and superstition, Western European would not be able to emerge from the "dark ages".
Printing press changed the cooperation between authors and publishers. Before the invention of the printing press, there were national literature existed, however printing press stimulated the development of national literature. Spoken languages of all ethnic groups in Western Europe evolved into the written word in the 16th century, at the time medieval writing text disappeared. Latin, used to be as an universal language, was no longer popular. Emerging countries were supporting fever for the unity of national language. At the same time, the authors were looking for the best way to express their thoughts; Publishers encouraged authors to use their native language to write books, in order to occupy more market. The wide circulation of the publication of the novel, the plain language status...
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