Information Systems Development Methodologies

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Ss. Kiril and Metodius – Faculty od Economics, Skopje
Vaska Chobanova index no: 4712

Homework 1: Information Systems Development Methodologies

This purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the information systems development methodologies available. A software development methodology or system development methodology in software engineering is a framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing an information system. Here are some iterative methodologies that can be used especially for large projects and some of their characteristics. Spiral Model 

The idea is evolutionary development, using the waterfall model for each step; it's intended to help manage risks. Don't define in detail the entire system at first. The developers should only define the highest priority features. Define and implement those, then get feedback from users/customers (such feedback distinguishes "evolutionary" from "incremental" development). With this knowledge, they should then go back to define and implement more features in smaller chunks. Each iteration of the prototype represented as a cycle in the spiral. The Spiral software development model is a risk-oriented. Use the spiral model in projects where business goals are unstable but the architecture must be realized well enough to provide high loading and stress ability. Recognizing:

1. Focus is on risk assessment and on minimizing project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process, as well as providing the opportunity to evaluate risks and weigh consideration of project continuation throughout the life cycle. 2. Each cycle involves a progression through the same sequence of steps, for each portion of the product and for each of its levels of elaboration, from an overall concept-of- operation document down to the coding of each individual program. 3. Each trip around the spiral traverses four basic quadrants: (1) determine objectives, alternatives, and constraints of the iteration; (2) evaluate alternatives; identify and resolve risks; (3) develop and verify deliverables from the iteration; and (4) plan the next iteration. 4. Begin each cycle with an identification of stakeholders and their win conditions, and end each cycle with review and commitment. Phases:

1. Project Objectives. Similar to the system conception phase of the Waterfall Model. Objectives are determined, possible obstacles are identified and alternative approaches are weighed. 2. Risk Assessment. Possible alternatives are examined by the developer, and associated risks/problems are identified. Resolutions of the risks are evaluated and weighed in the consideration of project continuation. Sometimes prototyping is used to clarify needs. 3. Engineering & Production. Detailed requirements are determined and the software piece is developed. 4. Planning and Management. The customer is given an opportunity to analyze the results of the version created in the Engineering step and to offer feedback to the developer. Variations. Win-Win Spiral Process Model is a model of a process based on Theory W, which is a management theory and approach "based on making winners of all of the system's key stakeholders as a necessary and sufficient condition for project success." Incremental Development

Here the project is divided into small parts. This allows the development team to demonstrate results earlier on in the process and obtain valuable feedback from system users. Often, each iteration is actually a mini-Waterfall process with the feedback from one phase providing vital information for the design of the next phase. Recognizing:

1. A series of mini-Waterfalls are performed, where all phases of the Waterfall development model are completed for a small part of the system, before proceeding to the next increment; OR
2. Overall requirements are defined before...
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