Information Systems Development

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EBSY600 Information Systems Development and Methodologies
Coursework 1

A report, with a timeline of historic events in the ISD and a description of each of the following approaches; O-O, Structured, Agile and Soft.

EBSY600 Information Systems Development and Methodologies
Coursework 1

A report, with a timeline of historic events in the ISD and a description of each of the following approaches; O-O, Structured, Agile and Soft.

Contents
Timeline2
Structured Approach9
Object Oriented11
Soft Systems Methodology14
Agile Software Development16
Individual Statements17
Personal Statement 117
Personal Statement 218
Personal Statement 319
Personal Statement 420
References21

Timeline

1953
* IBM ships its first electronic computer, the IBM 701
Late 1950s
* The programming of computers was still a difficult task and, consequentially, Procedural Languages were introduced (the third generation languages). * In actuality, these languages got their start in the late 1950's, but the proliferation of computers in the 1960's triggered the adoption of procedural languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, and PL/1. * Interestingly, these languages were patterned after Les Matthies' "Play script" technique which made active use of verbs, nouns, and "if" statements. Mid 1960’s

* The 1960's also saw the introduction of the Data Base Management System (DBMS). Such products were originally designed as file access methods for Bill of Materials Processing (BOMP) as used in manufacturing. The "DBMS" designation actually came afterwards. * Early pioneers in this area included Charlie Bachman of G.E. with his Integrated Data Store (IDS) which primarily operated under Honeywell GCOS configurations; Tom Richley of Cincom Systems developed TOTAL for Champion Paper, and; IBM's BOMP and DBOMP products. 1964

* Competition between computer manufacturers heated up during this decade, resulting in improvements in speed, capacity, and capabilities. Of importance here was the introduction of the much touted IBM 360 (the number was selected to denote it was a comprehensive solution - 360 degrees). * Other computer vendors offered products with comparable performance, if not more so, but the IBM 360 was widely adopted by corporate America. 1965

* Recognizing that common data elements were used to produce the various reports produced from an MIS, it started to become obvious that data should be shared and reused in order to eliminate redundancy, and to promote system integration and consistent data results. * Consequently, Data Management (DM) organizations were started, the first being the Quaker Oats Company in Chicago, Illinois in 1965. The original DM organizations were patterned after Inventory Control Departments where the various components were uniquely identified, shared and cross-referenced. To assist in this regard, such organizations made use of the emerging DBMS technology. * Many DM organizations lost sight of their original charter and, instead, became obsessed with the DBMS. Data as used and maintained outside of the computer was erroneously considered irrelevant. * DBMS was used as nothing more than an elegant access method by programmers. Consequently, data redundancy plagued systems almost immediately and the opportunity to share and reuse data was lost. This is a serious problem that persists in companies to this day. 1968

* The introduction of SSM (Soft System Methodologies) would go on to a powerful third generation means still used today thanks to the work of ‘Peter Checkland’ where he was awarded professor in 1969 for the University of Lancaster. The school of thought here is that the whole is greater than the sum of all parts i.e. trying to develop application systems for the organisation as a whole rather that for functions in isolation which is intended to enhance creativity (D. Avison and G.Fitzgerald; 2006) 1969

* A Management...
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