Information Systems and Computer Crime
What is information ?
Is information the same thing as data?
Information: Data combined with units of measure (quantitative) or combined with accompanying meaning (qualitative). Data + meaning = information
What is data then?
Data: Numbers, codes, words or phrases without units, or other items that define or give meaning to these original elements
An understanding that humans derive by reasoning based on data and associated information. Examples of data are simple numbers, such as 123 and 456. Examples of information are $1.23 per dozen eggs and $4.56 per dozen eggs. Knowledge is an understanding that $1.23 is a better buy than $4.56. Wisdom may include judgements about the nutritional and health value of eggs, or about the relative value of eggs as a source of protein compared with other sources.
Knowing what is true, correct, proper or fair as the result of learning and experience. The application of common sense and good judgment. The sum of human learning through all times
Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom
Data + meaning = Information
Information + evaluation = Knowledge
Knowledge + value judgment = Wisdom
CASE Study: swastika
DATA: The pattern of lines in the swastika.
INFORMATION: Knowing that the swastika represents the Nazi party. KNOWLEDGE: Analysing the Nazi harm or benefits to society.
WISDOM: Stating that you will reject the Nazi belief.
A system, usually computer based, into which data is placed, in which data may be processed, from which data is selected and maybe analysed, and from which reports may be produced
Data imput------ Process (selection analysis)-------Data output/reports
Information Retrieval System
A computer system used to store data and from which data may be selected and retrieved for use in reports and for analysis.
Inf. system + storage capacity = Inf. Ret. Sys.
Four components of an Inf. System
Processing functions of software
Input with value checking
Searching or selecting
With respect to computer systems, using computers and networks to perform irresponsible or unacceptable acts. Refers to any use of a computer for a purpose for which it was not intended. Abusive acts may include:
* sending messages or making available files containing offensive language or pornographic materials; * repeated sending of unwanted messages;
* any act considered unacceptable by the community sharing the resources
Any illegal or unauthorized behaviour in connection with computers and computer networks. Examples of computer crime include:
* computer sabotage
* unauthorized access
* computer forgery
* damage to computer data or programs
* computer fraud
* computer espionage
* unauthorized use of a computer
* unauthorized use of a protected computer program
Today the computer has replace both the gun and the pen as the weapons of choice for many criminals.
It is define as any crime accomplished through knowledge or use of computer technology. Some attacks are made by employees and other insiders ex clerks, cashiers, programmers computer operators.
The typical computer crime is a trusted employee with no criminal records who is tempted by an opportunity such as discover of a loophole in system security. Some are former employees seeking revenge on their bosses others are pranksters looking for a challenge.
These thefts are performed through various techniques; the two most important are: Salami technique. A program fraud that involves spreading the haul over a large number of small transactions like slices of salami. Trojan horse technique: involves the insertion of false information into a program in order to profit from the outcome. Another technique is data...
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