Information systems (IS) are the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data. The study bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes within a computer science discipline. Computer Information System(s) (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society while IS emphasizes functionality over design. The history of information systems coincides with the history of computer science that began long before the modern discipline of computer science emerged in the twentieth century. Regarding the circulation of information and ideas, numerous legacy information systems still exist today that are continuously updated to promote ethnographic approaches, to ensure data integrity, and to improve the social effectiveness & efficiency of the whole process. In general, information systems are focused upon processing information within organizations, especially within business enterprises, and sharing the benefits with modern society.
Silver et al. (1995) provided two views on (IS) and IS-centered view that include software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. A second managerial view includes people, business processes and Information Systems. The Association for Computing Machinery defines "Information systems specialists focus on integrating information technology solutions and business processes to meet the information needs of businesses and other enterprises." There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems,...