information system development life cycle models

Topics: Health care, Information systems, Decision theory Pages: 7 (2064 words) Published: October 22, 2013
Information System Concepts merida
Health information managers must understand the components of information systems and how information systems affect the organization, individuals within the organization, and interested publics outside the organization. Information systems provide opportunities to improve internal operations, create competitive advantage in the marketplace, improve patient-care delivery, enhance research, and provide better service. Information system risk occurs when the systems are not well integrated, are poorly managed, or do not support the goals of the organization. In order to exploit information system opportunities and minimize threats and risks, a thorough understanding of information system components and how these relate to the organization is necessary.

An information system is composed of a group of components (people, work processes, data, and information technologies) that interact through defined relationships to accomplish a goal. Information systems must be able to adapt to environmental change. A good example of a health-related information system is an order entry system. The goal of the system is to process physician orders. The system is composed of a group of components including people (nurses, physicians, unit secretaries, laboratory personnel), data, work processes, and information technologies. Each of these components interacts through defined relationships. fails to accommodate the environment or if the interactions among its component parts fail, the system becomes nonfunctional and disintegrates. Thus, a system must be composed of a group of components that:  Interact through defined relationships

 Work toward accomplishing a goal
 Self-adapt and respond to environmental changes
Figure 2-1 provides an example of the relationship of these characteristics. An information system is composed of a group of components (people, work processes, data, and information technologies) that interact through defined relationships to accomplish a goal. Information systems must be able to adapt to environmental change. A good example of a health-related information system is an order entry system. The goal of the system is to process physician orders. The system is composed of a group of components including people (nurses, physicians, unit secretaries, laboratory personnel), data, work processes, and information technologies. Each of these components interacts through defined relationships

The peoples enter orders in a predefined way through a data entry terminal (hardware) and through interaction with software. Through the predefined interactions between the hardware and software, the order is processed. The order entry system is self-adapting and able to accommodate environmental changes such as order volume. The example depicted in Figure 2-2 demonstrates the characteristics of a system as applied to an information system: component parts working in predefined relationships that can self-adapt to environmental changes to accomplish a common goal. As the bidirectional arrows depict in Figure 2-2, at any given time there is a potential three-way interaction between all system components. People interact or are affected by work practices, data, and information technologies. Work practices affect people and may be impacted by data availability and information technologies. Information technologies may affect work practices, people, and the input, processing, or dissemination of data. Thus, we see that information components are highly interrelated. Recognizing these interrelationships is very important, since a problem with one component will likely adversely impact all other components within an information system. When information system problems arise, it is crucial that all information system components and their relationships be examined

System Elements
Systems have three principal elements: inputs, processing mechanisms, and outputs. Figure 2-3 depicts their...
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