Information Processing Theory

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The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturation changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. According to the standard information-processing model for mental development, the mind’s machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for actively manipulating information, and long term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future.[1] This theory addresses how as children grow, their brains likewise mature, leading to advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they received through their senses. The theory emphasizes a continuous pattern of development, in contrast with Cognitive Developmental theorists such as Jean Piaget that thought development occurred in stages at a time. Cognitive processes include perception, recognition, imagining, remembering, thinking, judging, reasoning, problem solving, conceptualizing, planning and more terms and applications. These cognitive processes can emerge from human language, thought, imagery and symbols. Out of all of these specific cognitive processes, many cognitive psychologists study language-acquisition, altered states of mind and consciousness, visual perception, auditory perception, short-term memory, long-term memory, storage, retrieval, perceptions of thought and much more. Factors affecting physical and motor development

Culture
The core principles of physical development, such as learning muscle control, are universal. However, how fine and gross motor skills are utilized is variable to culture. For example, in the United States of America playing little league baseball is a common use of fine and gross motor skills while in other countries sports like soccer and rugby may be more common. Environment

Access to both indoor and outdoor environments is an important part of physical development. Giving a child the opportunity to explore different environments allows the child to learn new fine and gross motor skills, like riding a bike and swimming. Limitations

Physical limitations created by disabilities will have a hindering affect on physical development. Disabilities can delay or even prevent the development of certain fine and gross motor skills. Other Factors

Other contributing factors to physical development include genetics, nutrition, coordination and perception. Perceiving distances accurately is important for safety.

Aphasia
Remembering that the aphasic child is not intellectually impaired and can become easily frustrated, disappointed or even angry at his or her failure to communicate, teachers must keep communication simple but adult. Simplify sentence structure and reduce the rate of speech, avoiding speaking for the aphasic student and encouraging all other modes of expression - writing, drawing, choices, gestures, yes/no responses. Encourage the aphasic student to be as independent as possible and avoid being overprotective.

Dyslexia
"There are many strategies a teacher can implement in the classroom to help a Dyslexic student do well and understand the different skill sets such as spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic and understanding time. Most of these suggestions are beneficial for any student but especially important for Dyslexics."

* Help right-brain learners (Dyslexics) understand their thinking and the learning differences from left brain thinkers (big picture and concrete images versus abstracts such numbers, letters and words). They will understand they can be taught how to use...
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