Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron's very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars,
Like other group 8 elements, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +8, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-grey, but oxidize in normal air to give iron oxides, also known as rust. Unlike many other metals which form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than iron metal, and thus iron oxides flake off and expose fresh surfaces for corrosion.
Iron forms compounds mainly in the +2 and +3 oxidation states. Traditionally, iron (II) compounds are called ferrous, and iron (III) compounds ferric.
Like all metals, iron is a very good conductor of both heat and electricity. It is also strong, ductile and malleable. A common problem with iron is that in moist air it rusts. Iron also has the most stable nucleus of any element. Its electron arrangement also makes it highly attractive to magnetic fields (is magnetic!). Common Ores of Iron would be: Hematite (Hematite deposits are the most important source of Iron Ore in the United States.) Limonite, and Magnetite
Number of Orbits or shells: 4
No of electrons in First Orbits or shells: 2
No of electrons in Second Orbits or shells: 8
No of electrons in Third Orbits or shells: 14
No of electrons in Fourth Orbits or shells: 2
Iron is the most widely used of all the metals,...