(TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT)
Course Code: MTM-4
Total Marks: 100 Assignment Code: MTM-4/TMA/2013
Note:This TMA consists of two parts.
PART – I
1)Explain with the help of suitable examples the co-relation between Data, Information. (25) Information
Information consists of fact and terms of knowledge. It can be anything that has meaning to people. Usually information is expressed in words and numbers. However, it can be expressed in other forms, such as sound, measurement or pictures. Information becomes meaningful only if it can be analysed, compared and integrated with other information which already exists within the perceptor system. For example, a word in a foreign language possesses information, but may have no meaning for the listener, if the listener has no prior knowledge of the language.
A list of names and addresses.
The contents of a letter.
What is said in a telephone conversation?
The words of song.
Characteristics of Information
Based on the following two assumptions:
a) Information, like matter and energy, is a basic property of the universe; b) Any system which exhibits organisation contains information; It is clear that ‘information’ exists in a variety of forms and may be transmitted from one system to another and it undergoes a series of transformations. Hence, it is necessary to have a look at the inherent characteristics of information – which is a ‘crucial resource’ through its refined products, knowledge and wisdom. The following points illustrate the different perspectives: * The unique characteristic of information is that all other resources depend on information and knowledge. It is the perception and evaluation of resources which make their use possible. You cannot use that, or which you know nothing. Thus, the availability of information determines the use of other resources. * As a resource itself: Information is not reduced or diminished by wider use and sharing. On the contrary, its value tends to gain in the process. Hence, Anne Wells Branscomb (Communications Lawyer) calls it “a synergetic resource”, i.e., the more we have the more we use and the more useful it becomes. * Information is alive: Information exists only in the human mind – what it observes remembers and can retrieve, and what it then analyses, intuits and integrates. Information is the input and output of human perception. * Information is compressible: It can be concentrated, integrated, summarised or miniatured for easier handling. Thus, we can store many complex cases in a theorem, squeeze insights from masses for data into a single formula or capture lessons learned from much practical experience in a manual of procedure. * Information is diffusive: It tends to leak and the more it leaks the more we have. Examples are the strait-jackets of public secrecy, intellectual property rights, etc. * Information is shareable: To quote the communications expert Colon Cherry ‘information’ cannot bring about exchange transactions, but only shared transactions. To illustrate, if I give you a flower or sell you my automobile, you have it and I don’t but if I pass on an idea or a fact, we both have it. Thus, we come to the conclusion that ‘information’ as a resource is pervasive and different from other resources in fundamental ways, in kind not merely in degree.
Data is a collection of facts, figures and statistics, which can be processed to produce meaningful information. In an organization, data is resource that enables effective and successful operation and management. it gives an organization an past trades, enables it to...