In the wake of the economic globalization, the markets in different nations tend to be integrated. As a result of this tendency, more opportunity and challenges are brought to companies. Although the global market provides huge amount of customers, it brings in more competitors. In order to really understand how consumers make their decisions to buy a product or service, the market organization should clearly analyze the process of their decision and the factors which will impact their behavior. Consumers usually make a decision through five stages: need recognition, information search, and evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post-purchase behavior. Marketers should not only focus on the purchase decision, but also emphasize the entire buying process. During this process, consumers’ decision and behavior can be influenced by two main factors. First, there are the internal characteristics: psychological and personal. Then is the external influences, they are cultural and social. All the factors above should be taken into account during the entire consuming decision process. It is responsible for marketers to analyze the main influences in each step so that appropriate actions can be taken in time. The essay will mainly identify and discuss the stages in the consumer decision process and the relevant factors influencing consumer behavior during each step.
STAGES IN THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS AND FACTORS INFLUNCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
It is commonly recognized that human interests are many and polytropic. There are kinds of factors that affect consumer buying behavior. For the reason that buying behavior is never simple, it is essential for marketers to identify different factors that influence consumers’ decision during their buying process. Consumer buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers, individuals, and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. (Adam& Armstrong 2008) [pic]
Source: Adam& Armstrong, 2008, Principles of marketing, 4th edn, Australia. As you can see in the model of buying behavior, before the consumer make a decision, marketing mix, objectives, strategy, and environmental influences and buyer characteristics will all affect the process that how a decision can be made.
There are two main influencing factors that affect on consumer behavior: internal characteristics and external characteristics. The psychological influences include motivation, perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes. Buyer’s age and life-cycle stage, occupation, education, economic situation, personality and self- concept, and lifestyle consist of the personal influences. Cultural factors are sweeping which contain culture, different cultural groups and social class. In addition, social factors are also the influences that have a strong effect which are made up of household type, reference groups, as well as social roles and status.
The first part of the psychological influences is motivation. Motivation refers to a sufficient pressing that direct the person to satisfy the needs. (Adam& Armstrong 2008) Marketers should understand what is the person really seeking and what are the needs they really what to satisfy. For example, when a young person wants to buy an iPhone, the researchers should excavate the deep-depth motives. They may not because of the attractive characteristics, but impressing others and show their spending power. Another important point of motivation is that there are many kinds of needs in any given time. This can be explained by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Marketers must be aware of that a person has physiological needs will not motivated by going to a concert. Therefore, marketers ought to analyze what really motivates a person. The second part deals with the perception which is the process that people use the information to form recognition of the world. This...