In answering these questions, the student is expected to use knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology. Inflammation
1. a. Explain why a cast placed around a fractured leg in which extensive tissue damage has occurred might be too tight after 24 hours. – Tissue damage causes inflammation, which includes swelling, so the area affected swells causing the cast to be tight. b. Explain why such a cast might become loose in 3 weeks. After the cells of the damaged tissue are able to repair themselves, the effects of the inflammation subside. 2. List specific reasons why the inflammatory response is considered a body defense mechanism. - 3. a. Explain the rationale for each of the following with acute inflammation: (i) warmth, (ii) fever. b. State three systemic signs of inflammation. 4. Explain why leukocytosis, a differential count, and elevated ESR are useful data but are of limited value. 5. a. Explain how acute inflammation predisposes to development of infection. b. Classify each as inflammation or infection: (i) sunburn, (ii) skin rash under adhesive tape, (iii) common cold, (iv) red, swollen eye with purulent exudate. 6. How does the presence of thick, cloudy, yellowish fluid in the peritoneal cavity differ from the normal state? 7. If a large volume of fluid has shifted from the blood into the peritoneal cavity, how would this affect blood volume and hematocrit? 8. Explain how acute inflammation impairs movement of a joint. 9. Explain two mechanisms used to increase body temperature as a fever develops. 10. Why might a client be advised to avoid taking ASA a few days before extensive oral surgery (e.g., multiple tooth extractions)? 11. Explain why a young child taking prednisone (glucocorticoid) for chronic kidney inflammation is at high risk for infection and might need prophylactic antibiotics. Healing
12. a. When part of the heart muscle dies, how does it heal? b. How would the new tissue affect the strength of the heart...
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