INFERENCING AND DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
* Inference is a conclusion or deduction madefrom evidence * Drawing inferences means sensing relationships that are not stated but are implied by the author. These inferences may be assumptions, predictions, conclusions and generalizations. It is also choosing the most likely explanation from the facts at hand. * Making predictions is stating something about future behavior or actions based on present or past actions or behavior.Predictions with high probability are based on facts, not on assumptions or on other people’s predictions. Making inferences about story elements are based from the following: * Details in the story.
* From own experiences.
* Clues from the stories.
* Clues from world events.
* When a sentence contains an unfamiliar word, it is sometimes possible to infer the general meaning of the sentence without inferring the exact meaning of the unknown word. * To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open world of meaning deeply connected to our lives. Inferring can be done through:
* QUESTIONING- work in tandem with inferring to enhance understanding of text clues. * MAKING CONNECTIONS- readers able to think inferentially when they connect their background of information. * BACKGROUND OF KNOWLEDGE- it is important for the reader to have background knowledge about the text they are reading if they are expected to read inferentially. * PREDICTIONS- related to inferring/predicting outcome.
* IMAGINATION/VISUALIZATION- the reader use all his senses that is, you see things in your “mind’s eye” and hear the sounds you connect to about which you are reading. * INTERPRETATION/JUDGEMENT- process of taking that which is stated in text and extrapolating it to one’s life to create a wholly original interpretation, which in turn, becomes part of one’s belief or knowledge. CONCLUSION
* Conclusions are statements based on written materials or observed facts. * Drawing conclusions refer to the information that is implied or inferred.This means that the information is clearly stated. When the reader makes a conclusion he makes a statement telling about the nature of evidence or a fact. In doing this, he must see to it that his statement really consists of factual evidence instead of assumptions. Ways that may help you draw a Conclusion from what an author may be implying: * GENERAL SENSE- meaning of the word may be implied by the general sense of context. * EXAMPLES- meaning of the word is not implied by the general sense of its context, it may be implied. * ANTONYMS AND CONTRASTS- when the meaning of a word not implied by the general sense of its context/by examples. It may be implied by an antonym or by contrasting thought in the context. Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words
A paraphrase is….your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. * one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. * a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because…
* it is better than quoting information from am undistinguished passage. * It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
* The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. 5 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. 2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. 3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. 4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses...
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