Infectous Dise

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HCA/240 Week 2

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

HEPATITIS B

TAMMY BALACI

11/11/2012

Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver and usually causes progressive damage by bringing the immune cells into the liver and invoking and inflammatory response. The GEN word “Hepatitis” indicates the presence of this inflammatory response. Once the inflammation (Presence of puss cells) begins, fibrosis (scar tissue) may form and eventually a patient may develop cirrhosis liver failure and liver cancer. The different types of viral hepatitis our A(Formerly called infectious hepatitis ) , B(serum hepatitis) C(formerly called non –A, Non –Hepatitis) D(delta of hepatitis) , E(a virus transmitted through the feces of an infected person) , F, G, cryptogenic( caused by a virus has yet to be unidentified). More hepatitis viruses are being discovered, but many are less common. Other viruses, such as yellow fever, Epstein Barr (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) as well as parasites and bacteria, can cause hepatitis as a secondary effect. Hepatitis B (HB) is transmitted by the exchange of body fluids e.g. Blood, semen, breast milk and in some circumstances saliva. People most at risk include: anybody who has unprotected sexual intercourse; IV drug users who shared needles and syringes; healthcare workers and contact with potentially contaminated blood or body fluids; Babies born to mothers with the virus, Anyone in intimate contact with the infected person. All are it is possible to be infected with the hepatitis B virus and experienced no illness or symptoms whatsoever. Commonest is an acute attack of Hepatitis during which, you may feel on well, tired and lose appetite. Sometimes there is the characteristic of yellowish color of jaundice best seen in the whites of the eye. This can last for a few days to a few months. Itching skin and pale stools may also occur. 90% of people infected with Hepatitis B recover completely and become immune to the virus. Blood tests will show antibodies to hepatitis B but are now immune and cannot get hepatitis B again. However, 10% of people infected may have ongoing systems and they continue to be infectious for a variable length of time. Chronic infection is defined as having hepatitis B present for 6 months or more (www.hon.CH/Hepititis/HBV_chap2.2.html, 2012). Rule the hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus; meaning that it is genetic material is made up of deoxyribonucleic acids. It belongs to a family of viruses known as Hepadonaviridae. The virus is primarily found in the liver but it is also present in the blood and in certain body fluids. If it on vaccinated individual is exposed to this virus, accidentally, hepatitis B I on globulin can be given. Ideally within 24 hours of exposure and no later than seven days after exposure, a repeat DOS is necessary 28 to 30 days later. Hepatitis B and noon globulin is generally given where there is a known risk of infection, e.g. via needle stick injury or to newborn infants 42 positive mothers. The hepatitis B vaccine is produced by recommend it technology (genetic engineering) and has no risk of transmission of the AIDS virus. The hepatitis B vaccine should be administered to high risk individuals. Some high risk individuals are: All Health Care workers

Emergency workers
Pregnant women
International travelers
Military personnel
Morticians and embalmers
Patients and personnel at institutions of mentally handicapped and incarceration Intravenous drug users
High risk ethnic groups
Male homosexuals
Mail risk ethnic groups
The vaccination process involves three injections at zero, one month and six months (Pacific hematology, 2012). Many States and Territories use Healthy People as a guide to improving health. Find your State or Territory below to learn about how they’re working to achieve the Healthy People goals and objectives. Each State and Territory has a Healthy People Coordinator who serves as a liaison with the Office of Disease...
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