Infancy and Early Childhood Stages
University of Phoenix
Queanna Booth, Marilyn Lee,
Virginia Ortega, Shniqua Smith, Linda Van
Scholars note the important role that attachment plays in the development of an infant. Mary Ainsworth, a pioneer in the study of attachment describes attachment as an emotional bond between persons who binds them through space and time. Attachment is the basis for social skills. (As stated by Vaughn) According to Vaughn, through loving interactions between infants and parents and through parents understanding their infant's unique needs and temperament, attachment is developed. As infants interact with caregivers, they are building the foundation of their emotional and social abilities. The relationship between the parent and child is influences the infants' social abilities. How secure that relationship is will have a persuasion on the rest of the child's life.
The physical impact of neglect and bonding during the developmental stages of infancy and early childhood can be positive and negative. Neglect has a negative physical effect on childhood development in the event that the child is unable to form attachments. In order for attachment to develop normally, there are crucial periods during which bonding experiences must be present. The lack of attachment causes mild interpersonal discomfort to profound social and emotional problems. As stated by Perry, Runyan, and Sturges (1996).
Bonding has a positive effect on childhood development. According to Perry et al. (1996) Holding, gazing, smiling, kissing, singing and laughing all cause specific neurochemical activities in the brain. These neurochemical activities lead to normal organization of the brain systems, which are responsible for attachment. Problems with bonding and attachment can lead to a fragile biological and emotional foundation for future relationships. Neglect and bonding are particularly important focuses of attention for three reasons. First,...
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