There are two stages of psychosocial stages of development that occur in Infancy and Toddlerhood. In this discussion I will be discussing them and the elements in each.
In Infancy the two stages of psychosocial development are trust vs. mistrust, these two stages are very important for the mental development of a child. This stage lasts from birth to two years old. During this stage an infant learns the stages of trusting their caregiver to take care of their needs. According to Erik Erikson, this stage in an infant’s development is a direct correlation to the levels of trust they will have as adults (Newman & Newman, 2102).
For example, as an infant cries for their caregiver to meet basic needs such as feeding, diaper changes, or if the infant simply needs love and attention they are learning to develops a sense of trust in their caregiver and how quickly, or if all, their needs are being met. As a toddler, children are taught right from wrong and learn to trust their own perceptions. These are all important characteristics that will shape the child as they grow into adults. Erikson’s psychosocial theory explains the toddler’s self-identity and fear of separateness (Newman & Newman, 2012).
As a Toddler, the crisis that exists is that between autonomy and shame or guilt (Newman & Newman, 2012). This is very important because the toddler begins to find their own way separate from their parents coaching. They feel shame or guilt if something they do goes wrong or it does not turn out the way they thought. If they do something that they sense as bad and their caregiver does not encourage them to try again, the toddler may experience anger or resentment toward other people as they age.
As a mental health counselor, my knowledge of the stages of infancy and toddlers will help me serve individuals, students and families more effectively. I believe that every adult is a direct...