Inequalities Between Gender

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US History and Gov Thematic Essay Review

1) Amendment Essay: Impact of Amendments (government action, events etc.) Need historical background and impact. of 2

15th Amendment: 1869

Historical Background—Reconstruction Era, post-civil war • “Radical” Republican phase of reconstruction—Republican congress sought to secure ex-slaves rights w/variety of institutions: Freedman’s Bureau and using martial law. • 15th amendment was a final guarantee of blacks right to vote (it also forced some northern states to allow African Americans the right to vote). • Republicans motivated by keeping majorities in congress (i.e. blacks would vote for Republicans who freed them).

Impact:
• In the short term very little. When reconstruction ends in 1876 (Tilden (D) v Hayes (R) disputed election) African Americans are once again denied their rights via Jim Crow Laws (grandfather clause, poll tax, literacy test) • Right to vote is finally achieved in 1965 (ironically 100 years after civil war ends) in Voting Rights Act of 1965

19th Amendment 1920

Historical Background
• Women were 2nd class citizens from the founding of country • 1848 Seneca Falls Conference: Cady Stanton publishes declaration of the rights of women based on the Declaration of Independence. Met with resistance and ridicule • Stanton and Susan B. Anthony both champion women’s rights, including right to vote—Takes 72 years to achieve success • Women achieve right to vote in some states (Wyoming first in 1869 and 11 others west of Mississippi) • After WW1, with women taking places in the world of work and a long series of writings, speeches, protests, demonstrations, and action on the part of women’s groups—Amendment finally passes

Impact
• 52% of population gets right to vote
• Women now vote in higher % than men
• More and more congresspersons are women
• Carol Moseley-Braun: 1st African American Woman Elected to Senate in 1992-Personifies the spirit of achievement and equality in America

Court Case Essay: Historical Background pick 2

Plessy v. Feguson

Historical Background:
• Long term racism in America (from 1st slaves/indentured servants in 1620) • Jim Crow laws were put in place at the end of reconstruction to keep African Americans from gaining political power or equality

|Plessy v Ferguson |The state of Louisiana enacted a law that |The Supreme Court ruled that the "separate|Fourteenth Amendment equal protection | |(1896)*  |required separate railway cars for blacks |but equal" provision of the Louisiana law |clause vs. Louisiana's Tenth Amendment | | |and whites. In 1892, Homer Adolph |was constitutional. The case established |Reserved power right to legislate. | | |Plessy--who was seven-eighths |this principle of segregation until it was|Equality/ Federalism/Jim Crow/  | | |Caucasian--took a seat in a "whites only" |overturned in 1954.  | | | |car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move| | | | |to the car reserved for blacks and was | | | | |arrested  | | |

Impact
• Maintained segregation in the south until the modern civil rights movement

Brown v. Board of Ed

Historical Background

• Jim Crow laws that were ok’d supreme court

|Brown v Board of |Linda Brown...
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