Industrialisation in India

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The effect of Industrialisation shown by rising income levels since 1500. The graph shows the gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita between 1500 and 1950 in 1990 International dollars for selected nations. [1]

Industrialisation (orindustrialization) is the process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from anagrarian society into an industrialone. It is a part of a widermodernisation process, where social change and economic developmentare closely related with technologicalinnovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energyand metallurgy production. It is the extensive organisation of aneconomy for the purpose ofmanufacturing.[2]

Industrialisation also introduces a form of philosophical change where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature, and a sociological process of ubiquitous rationalisation.

There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development.[3] Key positive factors identified by researchers have ranged from favourable political-legal environments for industry and commerce, through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labour.

As industrial workers incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth.

The first country to industrialise was the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution commencing in the eighteenth century.[4]

By the end of the 20th century, East Asia had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world . [5]


According to the original sector classification of Jean Fourastié, an economy consists of a "Primary sector" of commodity production (farming, livestock breeding, exploitation of mineral resources), a "secondary sector" of manufacturing and processing (as paid work), and a "Tertiary Sector" of service industries. The industrialisation process is historically based on the expansion of the secondary sector in an economy dominated by primary activities.

The first transformation to an industrial economy from an agricultural one is called the Industrial Revolution and took place from the mid 18th to early 19th century in certain areas in Western Europeand North America, starting in Great Britain Derby, followed by Germany, f.i. Bergisches Land and France. This now is called the first industrial revolution.[4][6]

The Second Industrial Revolution describes the later changes that came about in the mid 19th century after the invention of steam engine, internal combustion engine, electricity and the construction of canals, railways and electric power lines. The invention of the assembly line gave this phase a boost.[7][8][9]

The lack of an industrial sector in a country can be a handicap in improving a country's economy and power, pushing governments to encourage or enforce industrialisation. On the other hand, the presence of industry in a country does not mean in general that it will bring wealth and prosperity to the people of that country. And third, the presence of an industry in one country can handicap other countries to develop the same type of industry. The latter recently can be observed in the computer- software-, and internet industry. Started from the U.S.A. around the 1990's these industries seemed to spread over the world. But after a period of monopolisation less than a decade long, the globally leading companies are concentrated in the U.S.A. Their economical power and capacibility to dominate the media, works against the developing of same types of industry in other states.

History of industrialisation

Main article: Pre-industrial society
A Watt steam engine, the steam engine fuelled primarily by coal that propelled the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom and the...
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