2. Water Use In Industry
3. Industrial Water Sustainability
4. Where Water Is Sourced From
5. Water Re - Use
Worldwide, industry accounts for 22 percent of total water usage, compared to domestic use at 8 percent and agricultural use at 70 percent. However, according to a 2003 U.N. water report, industrial water use of high-income countries can be as high as 59 percent. In 1997/98 the UK consumed just over 16.8 billion cubic meters of water (see chart 1). Non-domestic usage accounted for 13.5 billion cubic metres, while only 3.3 billion cubic meters were used by households through the public water supply network. While In 1995, U.S. industry alone was using approximately 27.1 billion gallons per day of water for processing purposes (U.S. Geological Survey). Water Use In Industry
Manufacturing industry obviously requires large amounts of water that’s for a wide range of uses, apart from what’s needed by staff for hygiene, firefighting purposes etc. which is often drawn from the public system. The main uses can be grouped into three categories. (as demonstrated by Lea 1967) Keith Smith, 1972 “water in Britian”, 1st edition, pp149-150
1.Energy production from boilers, some boiler feed water is used by most industries for steam rising. In most cases small low pressure boilers are required. But for industries that produce and use electricity on a large scale, massive high pressure units are employed.
2.Processing and production, the most complex category of industrial use. This includes water used for cleansing at all stages of manufacture, as a chemical medium for dissolving and diluting soluble substances, as a transport agent for substances in solution or suspension, (especially for waste disposal). And finally as a basic raw material that is required for the finished product, as for food, drink and pharmaceutical industries.
3.Cooling water, as...