The term industrial unrest is used to describe activities undertaken by the labor and other working people when they feel grievances and protest against pay or conditions of their employment. Industrial unrest can also be defined as the total range of behaviours and attitudes that express opposition and divergent orientations between industrial owners and managers, on the one hand, and working people and their organisations on the other. The unrest actions may include strikes, sit-ins, slowdowns or work-to-rule. Historically, riots also took place, such as the action taken by the Luddites during the Industrial Revolution, and other machine-wrecking outbreaks. Industrial unrest is caused by a clash between employers and employees. Generally, the causes of industrial conflict fall into categories such as working conditions, wage demands, work practices, political disputes and social concerns.
Different forms of unrest
- Collective in nature, involves groups of employees or trade unions
- Open (or overt), obvious to all that it is occurring
- takes the form of:
- Overtime bans, working to rule, restrictions on output
- Political action
- Individual in nature, only involves single employees
- Hidden (or covert), not obvious it is occurring
- takes the form of
- Labour turnover
- Low productivity
- Acts of indiscipline and sabotage
- Working without enthusiasm
Reasons behind industrial unrest
Small number of “militant” shop stewards – abusing their position -Some workers had other sources of income & not committed to the corporation
-Unofficial disputes – increased significantly
-Overly dependent on third parties to solve I.R. problems
-Lack of consistency in interpretation & implementation of policy.
-Workers badly advised or not advised/consulted by shop stewards
-Some shop stewards & workers wanted to cause trouble rather than do their work
-Some managers were aggressive in their dealings with workers
-No future in the corporation due to intention to privatise
-Supervisors were not allowed to manage by their superiors – a lot of responsibility with no authority.
Conflict resolution mechanisms
There are five main styles of dealing with conflict that vary in their degrees of cooperativeness and assertiveness. It is argued that people typically have a preferred conflict resolution style. However it is also noted that different styles were most useful in different situations. The main styles are: Competitive: People who tend towards a competitive style take a firm stand, and know what they want. They usually operate from a position of power, drawn from things like position, rank, expertise, or persuasive ability. This style can be useful when there is an emergency and a decision needs to be make fast; when the decision is unpopular; or when defending against someone who is trying to exploit the situation selfishly. However it can leave people feeling bruised, unsatisfied and resentful when used in less urgent situations. Collaborative: People tending towards a collaborative style try to meet the needs of all people involved. These people can be highly assertive but unlike the competitor, they cooperate effectively and acknowledge that everyone is important. This style is useful when people need to bring together a variety of viewpoints to get the best solution; when there have been previous conflicts in the group; or when the situation is too important for a simple trade-off. Compromising: People who prefer a compromising style try to find a solution that will at least partially satisfy everyone. Everyone is expected to give up something and the compromiser him- or she also expects to relinquish something. Compromise is useful...