Industrial Revolution Study Guide

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History Study Guide
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution during the 19th century
Industrial Revolution
oReason:
Natural resources
Coal
oUsed to develop the steam engine.
oNeeded for the constructions of machines and steam engines. •Iron ore
oNew methods of producing iron:
1709- Abraham Darby used coal to smelt iron (separated iron from its ore) When he discovered coal gave off impurities that damaged the iron, he found a way to remove the impurities from coal Invention and improvement of the steam engine

First invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. It was powered by coal to pump water out of mines. •1769- James Watt improved this engine. This engine became the key power source of the industrial revolution. oSpread of the Industrial Revolution:

Britain enforced strict rules to keep the technology from spreading. (no exporting inventions) 1807- William Cockerill opened factories in Belgium to manufacture spinning and weaving machines.  Belgium became the first European nation outside of Britain to industrialize. While countries such as Germany, France and the US began to develop (because of their abundant supply of coal, iron, and other resources – more than Britain), some countries developed more slowly, such as southern and eastern countries in Europe (because of lack of natural resources, or capital to invest in industry. Ex: Russia. Had the resources, but social and political conditions slowed the economic development) Social changes:

Rapid urbanization
Long hours of work in dangerous conditions (men, women and children) •More food  lower price
More jobs
More cities, railroads, and factories
Continuous competition between nations

oRole of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries:
Cotton:
Increasing demand of textiles lead to the invention of the flying shuttle (John Kay), spinning jenny (James Hargreaves, 1764), water frame (Richard Arkwright).  These machines lead to the building of factories. Iron:

Built better machines than coal
Steel industries:
1856, Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron ore and produce steel. •Lighter, harder, and more durable than iron
Other improves on the Bessemer process  produced faster and for a cheaper price •Major material used in tools, bridges, and railroads.
Industrialized countries measured they success in steel output oBritish Enclosure Movement:
Process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers. 1500s – did it to gain pastures for their sheep  increased wool output 1700s – wanted to create larger fields that could be cultivated more efficiently Farm output rose  profits rose because larger fields needed fewer workers Farmers became homeless and jobless

Villages decreased
 Jobless farmworkers moved to towns and cities  formed growing labor force that tended the machines of the industrial revolution. oRise of factory system and demise of cottage industries:
Machines were too large to keep them inside the houses
Manufacturers built long sheds to house these machines. First located near fast moving streams  provided water power to run the machines. Factory: places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. oRising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world: Monopolies (?)

Technological advances that produces the Industrial Revolution: oSpinning Jenny (James Hargreaves):
Spun many threads at the same time
oSteam Engine (James Watt):
Key power source in the Industrial Revolution
oCotton Gin (Eli Whitney):
Removed seeds from cotton (as opposed to people removing them) oProcess of making steel (Henry Bessemer):
Purified iron
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries: oPopulation increase
oIncreased standards of living but not for all
Wages varied  unskilled workers won less...
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