History Study Guide
Industrial Revolution during the 19th century
Used to develop the steam engine.
Needed for the constructions of machines and steam engines. •
New methods of producing iron:
1709- Abraham Darby used coal to smelt iron (separated iron from its ore)
When he discovered coal gave off impurities that damaged the iron, he found a way to remove the impurities from coal
Invention and improvement of the steam engine
First invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. It was powered by coal to pump water out of mines. •
1769- James Watt improved this engine. This engine became the key power source of the industrial revolution. o
Spread of the Industrial Revolution:
Britain enforced strict rules to keep the technology from spreading. (no exporting inventions)
1807- William Cockerill opened factories in Belgium to manufacture spinning and weaving machines. Belgium became the first European nation outside of Britain to industrialize.
While countries such as Germany, France and the US began to develop (because of their abundant supply of coal, iron, and other resources – more than Britain), some countries developed more slowly, such as southern and eastern countries in Europe (because of lack of natural resources, or capital to invest in industry. Ex: Russia. Had the resources, but social and political conditions slowed the economic development)
Long hours of work in dangerous conditions (men, women and children) •
More food lower price
More cities, railroads, and factories
Continuous competition between nations
Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries:
Increasing demand of textiles lead to the invention of the flying shuttle (John Kay), spinning jenny (James Hargreaves, 1764), water frame (Richard Arkwright). These machines lead to the building of factories.
Built better machines than coal
1856, Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron ore and produce steel. •
Lighter, harder, and more durable than iron
Other improves on the Bessemer process produced faster and for a cheaper price •
Major material used in tools, bridges, and railroads.
Industrialized countries measured they success in steel output o
British Enclosure Movement:
Process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
1500s – did it to gain pastures for their sheep increased wool output
1700s – wanted to create larger fields that could be cultivated more efficiently
Farm output rose profits rose because larger fields needed fewer workers
Farmers became homeless and jobless
Jobless farmworkers moved to towns and cities formed growing labor force that tended the machines of the industrial revolution. o
Rise of factory system and demise of cottage industries:
Machines were too large to keep them inside the houses
Manufacturers built long sheds to house these machines.
First located near fast moving streams provided water power to run the machines.
Factory: places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. o
Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world:
Technological advances that produces the Industrial Revolution: o
Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves):
Spun many threads at the same time
Steam Engine (James Watt):
Key power source in the Industrial Revolution
Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney):
Removed seeds from cotton (as opposed to people removing them) o
Process of making steel (Henry Bessemer):
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries: o
Increased standards of living but not for all
Wages varied unskilled workers won less...
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