James R. Hamilton
Identification and Significance
1. McCulloch v. Maryland
McCulloch v. Maryland was a Supreme Court case in March 1819. In this particular case, the state of Maryland had levied a tax on the Baltimore branch of the federal Bank of the United States. The unanimous decision that the tax was in fact unconstitutional was delivered by Supreme Court Chief Justice at the time, John Marshall. This case is significant because it set precedence in two areas; whether the federal government had the right to create a federal bank and whether or not a state could tax a federal agency or institution. Because of this case, the federal government was allowed “implied powers” and states were denied the right to tax federal agencies (Divine 312-313). 2. War of 1812
Beginning in 1812 and ending in 1815, the War of 1812 was a war between American forces and British troops. The reasons that America felt war was necessary included violations of American maritime rights by the British, impressment of United States citizens into the British navy, provocation of the Native Americans, and a defense of national honor and stature. The war was fought primarily in the northern United States and Canada and concluded with an American victory at the battle of New Orleans on January 8th, 1815 where the U.S. troops under Andrew Jackson very quickly diminished British forces. The war effectively became known as the “Second War for Independence” by some and forced Britain to abandon their presence in North America (Divine 280-282). 3. Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine is the name given to the foreign policy created by President James Monroe in 1823. This policy declared the entire western hemisphere off limits to European colonization. In return for compliance with this declaration, the United States promised to remain removed from European affairs and wars. This is an important doctrine because it shaped the interaction between the United States and Britain for the following years and allowed the U.S. to avoid any more conflicts with European powers domestically as the Nation continued to grow and develop (Divine 314). 4. Cotton Gin
The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It was created to separate the seeds from the fibers of short-staple cotton and allowed the slaves to clean fifty times as much cotton in a day as they had previously been able to by hand. The cotton gin cut production costs and sped up the process of cotton picking. In return, slavery in the South was revitalized and began to grow once again creating an enormous output of cotton that was large enough to feed both the U.S. and British textile industries (Divine 372).
Short Answer Question 1
Andrew Jackson was the single president who became known as the epitome of democracy. Though he was unable to secure the presidency with his campaign for the 1824 election, he was successful in 1828 and again in 1832 (Divine 327, 338). His actions as president and his structuring of the Democratic Party that formed around him were so influential that the era of Jackson’s presidency was granted its own name, Jacksonian Democracy. This was not achieved however without struggle or strife. Jackson was faced with political conflict during Indian removal and the Bank War.
Jackson had begun his process of Indian removal during his military career at which time he was directly involved in persuading groups of Indians to emigrate. Due to the lack of attention to the matter by Adams, the previous president, Jackson, who promised a quick expulsion of the Indians, had almost immediate support from states such as Mississippi, Georgia, and Alabama, all states which struggled with the Indian populations and laws (Divine 331). Immediately after Jackson’s inauguration, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi all took action to extend their own laws over those of the tribal peoples within state borders. Shortly...
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