Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Waves
The Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century in England. However, the long-term effects of the revolution spread throughout the world. The Revolution introduced new technological systems of energy, transportation and production, which proliferated economic development (Knox and Marston 2002). Furthermore, new demands for raw materials, labor forces, and markets were established (Kreis 2002). According to Kreis, the Revolution was a complex phenomenon that took place during different phases (2002). First, technological innovations were localized within a few regions in England (Knox and Marston 2002). Gradually, new technologies diffused throughout the rest of England and also into northwest Europe (ibid, 2002). Finally, the Revolution spread and expanded its innovations to the rest of Europe (ibid, 2002) Therefore, the Industrial Revolution can be divided into three specific waves. The first wave took place between 1790 and 1850. Technologies were localized and limited to a few regions in Britain. In these regions, industrial entrepreneurs exploited the availability of key resources like coal, iron, ore, and water (Knox and Marston 2002). According to Knox and Marston this allowed for initial clusters of industrial technologies to appear. For example, steam engines, cotton textiles, and ironwork were introduced (ibid, 2002). Although certain regions shared common resources and innovations, they each retained their own technological traditions and industrial styles (ibid, 2002). The Revolution at first was a “regional-scale phenomenon” (Kreis 2002, par. 3), yet it quickly began to spread into other British and European localities. From 1850 until 1870, the second wave of the Industrial Revolution occurred. This wave is characterized by the diffusion of industrialization to the rest of Britain. As well, parts of northwest Europe, particularly the coalfields of northern France, Belgium, and Germany experienced industrial improvement...
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