Industrial Revolution

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1.0 Introduction
Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750s to 1850s. It was first started in Great Britain particularly in England then spread to Western Europe, japan and northern America as well as rest of the world. This industrial revolution was a process where machines take over the functions of hand tools, thus, the production increase. Many new machines were invented by the inventors in this period, for example, James watt invented the steam engine in 1755 to pump water out of mines. There were many factors overlapping why Industrial Revolution was started in England, enough supply of labor, Support from the Government, appropriate land for agriculture, and wealth of natural resources are some of the factors that contributes to the beginning of industrial revolution in England. Industrial revolution can be said as a period of transformation where changes occur in agriculture, technology, and transportation, because of this, industrial revolution is combination agriculture and mechanical revolution. Mechanical revolution is invention of new machines mainly to manufacture of cloths, as well as for other usages, for example “water frame” was invented by Richard Arkwright, “spinning mule” designed Samuel Crompton , “the flying shuttle” was invented by John Kay and for making thread , James Hargreaves developed the “spinning jenny”.

Clockwise from top: spinning mule by Samuel Crompton, the flying shuttle by john kay and spinning jenny by james harvgrevas. Whereas, Agriculture Revolution arises when new methods of corps cultivation were developed to increase the production, a group of people came up with new idea to increase this production for example, Thear invented chemical manure to keep the fertility of soil, Townshend introduced “Rotation Farming” where different corps been planted at a same soil and mixed farming were introduced. In bird eye view, Industrial revolution is an event that lead to another, from agriculture and mechanical revolution, the transport and communication evolves. This was period were drastic changes occur on social and economy in England that causes impact on society whether positive and negative, because of this industrial revolution England became very famous, rich and powerful compare to other country, it became a important turning point in history, almost every aspects of our life is influenced in some way by the contribution of this industrial revolution. In the following pages, this positive and negative effects will be discussed more further.

2.0 Positive Effects.
2.1 Urbanization.
The major positive effect of industrial revolution is Urbanization. Increased opportunity of job in new mills and factories caused people migrate from rural area to cities, further more workers in mills and factories were well paid compare to those who doing agriculture. The increase of factories brings to the development of towns and cities. According to Robert Hughes in his book called The Fatal Shore explain that population of England is 6million from 1700 to 1740, but it increases dramatically after that soon reached 16.8 million in 1850 and rapidly increased an reached 30.5 million in 1901. This industrial revolution also shows the changes of roles of man and women , this is because, in the farm working together, but soon after industrial revolution or new industrial society, the workplace and home of both men and women were separated. Men worked at a factory, whereas women usually worked at home. Women’s worked in factories and then take of their children after work, increased opportunity of job caused the working people can get more money and by this money women ate better and had healthier babies. This industrial revolution also bring changes in the education where upper middle class children had a chance to get education whereas, lower class children had no chances to been educated , this is because in this because the wealth of this middle class industrialists and...
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