The Industrial Revolution was one of the most significant epochs in human history. It indicated the change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry, machines, and manufacturing. The industrial Revolution has showed the way to such important changes in the way goods were produced and in the way people lived that it completely altered the world. This drastic change benefited life but hindered it as well. Pollution at a scale the world had never seen before augmented tainting the air, water, ground, and the environment. Working conditions declined considerably and wages decreased, and the number of women and children working amplified tearing apart family ties and religious and moral values. However, the industrial Revolution had other more benign results as well. They include advances in technology, communication, the development of new inventions such as the internal-combustion engine, advances is science, medicine, increase in mobility of the population, and interest in the social sciences, education, and changes in music, literature, and the arts.
The industrial Revolution was largely illustrated through technological strides which was seen through developments in electricity and the application of the internal-combustion engines to daily lives. The power of electricity was exploited to upgrade technology and social and home life. In 1831 an English scientist, Michael Faraday, drawing from the works of Ampere and other scientists, figured out that magnetism could produce electricity. This concept and principle is still in use today via the dynamo, a device that transformed mechanical energy into electrical energy. Thomas Edison, an American inventor, formulated an electric bulb that glowed for lengthy amounts of time before burning out. Realizing the importance of a steady flow of electric current to their destinations, Edison worked out a central powerhouse and transmission system. People also discovered means to tap waterfalls and rivers to run gigantic dynamos, whose hydroelectric power was transmitted through wires. The internal-combustion engine was designed to drive individual vehicles by combusting the fuel inside a closed cylinder. Gottlieb Daimler, Karl Benz, and Louis Renault were some of the pioneers of this area. The engine was the key to the successful production of Henry Ford’s automobiles. Beginning from the Montgolfier brothers in the 1700s, people used lighter-than-air balloons to hover above the ground. In 1903 the Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright of the US, successfully flew a heavier-than-air airplane because of their study of aerodynamics and the utilization of the internal-combustions engine to propel the aircraft. The strides in both the electric industry and the internal-combustion showed how science and technology could be combined to generate great inventions.
Discoveries in electricity gave away to progress in communications as seen by the invention of the telephone and the telegraph. Alexander Graham Bell, an American, transmitted the human voice over a long distance through an electric circuit. He patented his telephone in 1876. An Italian inventor, Guglielmo Marconi, by studying the discoveries of James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz, devised instruments for sending and receiving radio waves. From its creation in 1896 and afterwards, this wireless telegraph sent messages through space without wires and they became indispensable for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications. The telephone and telegraph helped narrow down the communication gap and linked areas, previously unknown and impassable, to the modern world. This increase in communications also gave a major boost to the spirit of nationalism as people of the same religion, ethnicity, or creed could easily communicate with their peers around the rest of the world, and could distribute the nationalistic ideas of western philosophers around a particular area. Such a major development in...
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