Industrial and Organizational Psychology

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INTRODUCTION
Effective Communication is significant for managers in the organizations so as to perform the basic functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities. Communication serves as a foundation for planning. All the essential information must be communicated to the managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizing also requires effective communication with others about their job task. Similarly leaders as managers must communicate effectively with their subordinates so as to achieve the team goals. Controlling is not possible without written and oral communication. Managers devote a great part of their time in communication. They generally devote approximately 6 hours per day in communicating. They spend great time on face to face or telephonic communication with their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers also use Written Communication in form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION:
1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. 2. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. 3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well-informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in molding employee’s attitudes. 4. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. 5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behavior in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.

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PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION:

Exchange of information: Exchange of information about a particular fact or circumstances is one of the most important objectives of communication. It can be done either through spoken or written language or by using any other system of signs or signals.

Advising: another important objective of communication is giving advice to respective person. By its very nature advice flows horizontally or downwards or sometimes upwards. Advice may be given on matters related to work or on personal matters if the relationship permits.

Counseling: Counseling is an organized & specialized form of advice. Counseling is objective, impersonal & professional. A number of large business organizations have their counseling departments. Services of specialists are engaged for the purpose & employee receives free medical advice & vocational guidance etc.

Directing the subordinates: The subordinates of an organization need necessary directions & orders from their superiors for better job performance. So communication is required for directing the subordinates. Orders or directions dominate the downward flow of information.

Suggestion: Soliciting suggestions form employees regarding certain aspects is another important objective of communication. Now-a-days progressive organizations make a provision for suggestion boxes that are placed at some convenient places in the office or the factory. Because an...
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