Industrail Relations

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International Comparative Industrial Relations- Comparative study No| Indicators | Common Criteria suggested in Research| Australia| Britain| US| Germany| Denmark| Japan| France | Italy| Sri Lanka| A| Themes ( Key topics/subjects about IR system components)| | | | | | | | | | | 1| IR System| | | | | | | Japanese Model of IR–Three Pillars and Jacoby’s classification-Statist Micro corporatism 1. Lifetime employment’, 2. Seniority and merit-based pay, and 3. Enterprise unionism| | | | 2| Key Changes taking place in the IR system| | | | | | | Major changes Japanese IR are ; 1. Rise of non-regular employment linked to increasing inequality and poverty, 2. The introduction of performance-related pay 3. Modest deregulation of labour Market| | | | 3| Status of Present employment Relations | | | | | | | * Contemporary Japanese employment relations are relatively stable, and relations between labour and management are generally cooperative | | | | 4| Other Key topics of Importance such as disputes, Unions and issues | | | | | | | * No of labour disputes growing * High union Density Declining * Union Membership Declining * Range of social, economic and labour trends pose challenges to the future of unions. * Growing concerns on how to protect the employment and working conditions of ”atypical workers” who are not represented by trade unions.| | | | B| Context | | | | | | | | | | |

| General| | | | | | | | | | |
1| Population/ Size and Pop density| | | | | | | 127 Mn population –143,619 square miles Area-Population Density -336 people per square KM| | | | 2| Labour force size | | | | | | | 66 Mn labour force with 73% labour participation | | | | 3| Type of Labour | | | | | | | Significant no of Foreign Employees in Japanese Labour Market| | | | 4| Other macro conditions | | | | | | | Overseas expansion of Japanese companies (MNCs) and Japanisation of IR | | | | | Political| | | | | | | | | | |

1| Type of Political system and Political stability or instability| | | | | | | Democratic political system with the emperor as a symbolic head of state and Political stability after WWII with parliament and a constitution Politics are dominated by the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) for long period. In the August 2009 parliamentary elections, the opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won in a landslide over the ruling Liberal Democrats| | | | 2| Employment Laws-Type and Level of Intervention by Govt | | | | | | | Japanese government intervenes in the economy only in a limited way. However, during times of economic stagnation it has used fiscal measures to stimulate the economy (Lincoln 2001: 54) and has used its tripartite relationship with peak employer and union groups to achieve wage restraint during recessions| | | | 3| Govt. Relationships with Employers and Unions | | | | | | | Traditionally, Japan looked to Western countries for model employment relations practices ( especially US) Tripartite relationship with peak employer and union groups to achieve wage restraint during recessions | | | | 4| Others | | | | | | | Japanization of other countries after Most large Japanese firms invested in overseas subsidiaries so that many of them became multinational enterprises with their headquarters in Japan, for example, Toyota. | | | | | Economic | | | | | | | | | | |

1| GDP and Economy Type | | | | | | | Third largest economy( market Oriented)- 5.87Trillion USD| | | | 2| Unemployment %| | | | | | | Low unemployment – 4%| | | | 3| Economic Growth and decline| | | | | | | Period of economic Downturn in 1970s and Low growth and recovering slowly after 2000| | | | 4| Economically active Population | | | | | | | 66 Mn...
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