Indus Valley Civilization

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More than 4,000 years ago there flourished in the north-western parts of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent a civilization which, derived its name from the main river of the region is known as the Indus civilization. From west to east the Indus civilization covered an area of 6oo kilometres, and from north to south of 100 kilometres. The first thing that strikes a visitor to an Indus site-be it Harappa or Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan , Lothal, in India-is the town-planning. One finds the streets and lanes laid out according to a set plan: the main streets running at right angles. Both at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro the houses were made of kiln-burnt bricks. At Lothal too, mud bricks were used for most of the residential houses, kiln-burnt bricks in large quantities were used for drains, wells, and bathing-platforms.For the supply of fresh water, most of the houses had their own wells. Apart from revealing the architecture and town-planning of the time, have also thrown valuable light on organizational, religious, and commercial aspects of the life of the people. Now I shall consider the finds-the pottery, terracotta's, sculptures, seals, weights, etc. Pottery is found in very large quantities at all ancient sites. The terracotta figurines, human as well as animal, show vigour, variety, and ingenuity. In the art of metal sculpture too, great heights were achieved. The famous bronze female figure from Mohenjo-daro, supposed to represent a dancing girl, is a perfect piece of art. Also the Indus artist was at there best when they dealt with there seals. Cut out of steatite, the seals are usually 20 to 30 millimeters square. On the obverse is an inscription, generally accompanied by an animal figure. It is in the engraving of these seals that the great gifts of the Indus valley artists are especially reflected. The Indus people were literate is fully borne out by the inscriptions on the seals. The occurrence of inscriptions even on pottery and other household objects further...