Indus Valley Civilization

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The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's first great urban civilizations, existing from 3000 B.C.E to 1500 B.C.E. During their time they have contributed much to the history of the world through their influences on culture, religion, government, social structure, economy and technology.

The Indus Valley Civilization was located along the river valleys of the Indus, Ravi, and Sutlej. In its spread, this civilization was bigger than the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, stretching over an area of 1,260,000 km, comprising the whole of modern day Pakistan and parts of modern day India and Afghanistan. This civilization is called the Indus Valley Civilization as the earlier sites were found in Indus Valley. However, later, as a few sites were found outside Indus Valley, certain historians felt that it would be more appropriate to call it Harappan Civilization after the first site of its type discovered in 1921 was in Harappa.

The people of the Indus Civilization lived in well built houses, many of which contained both kitchens and bathrooms. They were highly hygienic. Agriculture was a major part of their society and culture, their primary diet included: wheat, barley, milk products, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and eggs. In order to keep themselves entertained, the Indus valley people participated in dancing, gambling, music and hunting activities. For clothes, they used both cotton and woolen garments. Both men and women wore jewelry and decorations such as finger rings, earrings, necklaces and head bands which were made from gold, silver, copper and/or ivory. Women wore makeup such as lipstick as well as face paint and wore different styles of hair.

The Indus Valley people worshipped many Gods. Based on the many seals and terracotta figurines that have been found, their deities included the Mother Goddess, Pashupati Shiva, Rhallus, Horned Deity, Bull and Pipal. There have been many implements and pots found buried along with their...
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