Inductive and Deductive Agruments

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Kurt Lieberknecht
The similarities and difference between inductive and deductive arguments. The best way to describe the similarities and difference between inductive and deductive arguments, it would be best if the term "argument" had a definition. Everyday people have arguments. For these everyday conversations "argument" means "dispute". In this Logic class an argument consists of claims or statements followed by a final claim. The statements that articulates the reason for agreement of the final claim called “the premises” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007, Argument). This class uses this definition of “argument” to determine how to build a position on certain subjects, and reasoning to convince others to accept the final claim or conclusion (Hurley, P. A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e, 2012, 2). If more logical arguments were presented, there might be fewer non-logical arguments or nonarguments. This gets to the main subject of comparing and contrasting inductive and deductive arguments. Statements can be considered arguments or nonarguments. Arguments can be either inductive or deductive. An argument leads to a conclusion led by a premise or premises. The premises can be true or false, in which case will change a deductive argument from sound to unsound and vice versa. The same is true for inductive arguments but the wording is cogent or uncogent. These arguments also have a terminology that describes them even further. A deductive argument can be valid or invalid, and an inductive argument can be strong or weak. Some of the biggest difference between the two includes; that an inductive argument includes new information into the argument to make the final conclusion, deductive arguments use repeating information to get to a conclusion, and wording (Smith, Mathew 2012, Logical Argument). The subject of what constitutes as an argument, it needs to consist of one or more premises and a conclusion (Hurley, P. A Concise Introduction to Logic  11/e, 2012, 14). When the premises present high-quality reasons to accept the conclusion it is stated that it is an argument. If the premises fail to support the conclusion it is still considered an argument as it has a premise and a conclusion. Being an argument does not always make the conclusion true; that only predetermines that the conclusion follows from the premises. If the premises are reasonable, and the final claim relates to the premises, the conclusion is very likely to be true (Hurley, 16). In other words, it is necessary for a statement to have a premise and a conclusion to be recognized as an argument in this Logic class. The argument needs to be checked if the premises are true or reasonable to believe, and if the statements are clear. If all this is the case, it is a logical argument. If there logical argument that is deductive it is called sound. If there is a logical argument that is inductive it is called cogent. In a deductive argument, a person states that the conclusion must be correct if, and only if, the premises are true. If the premises support the final claim, it is a valid argument: 1. Dogs have whiskers.

2. Animals with whiskers are mammals.
C. Dogs are mammals.
This is a deductive argument that is valid and has true premises it is called a sound argument. If the premises are false but the conclusion is true it is considered an unsound argument. This is a valid argument, but it is unsound. Here is an example. 1. All birds can fly.

2. A penguin is a bird.
C. A penguin can fly.
This is a valid argument because the premises support the conclusion, but a penguin clearly cannot fly. The premise "all birds can fly" is false making it an unsound argument. If a deductive argument has bad or incorrect logic, the premises do not support the conclusion even if the premises are true, the argument is invalid. 1. All humans are mammals.

2. Mike’s dog is a mammal.
C. Mike’s dog is a human.
1. When Tim takes a shower, Tim gets wet.
2. Tim...
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