Indonesian Revolution

Topics: Indonesia, Dutch East Indies, Netherlands Pages: 6 (2183 words) Published: May 16, 2013
A revolution is a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system. To know that a revolution has taken place, there would be a change in the government or the way the country is ruled. Revolutions have occurred throughout history and vary in terms of methods, motivation and the duration of the revolution. The results of a revolution usually include major changes in the economy, culture, and political institutions. For a revolution to occur, there needs to be a change in the country to being different from the past. The reason revolutions occur generally is usually because injustices by the corrupt leader or government, when the gap between rich and poor is too big, but also colonization. The Indonesian Revolution is considered a tipping point in the Indonesian history because of the changes in the political system, the economical system and the social systems today. A main revolution that started due to colonialism is the southeast Asian industrial revolution. From 1942 to 1945, Indonesia was occupied by Japan. During the Japanese occupation, Japan controlled the trade and the government that the Japanese removed the Dutch control during the war. However, after the Second World War, the Dutch regained their control over Indonesia. In 1945, there was an armed conflict and a diplomatic struggle between Indonesia and the Dutch empire due the Dutch wanting the Indonesia’s territory to include not only the Netherlands Indies but also Portuguese Timor and British North Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. In short terms, the Dutch wanted to return to Indonesia’s colony. After trying to persuade the Indonesian’s, the Dutch forces were not able to, but were strong enough to resist by being expelled. Step by step the English and the Australian forces were removed and Dutch troops were being sent to Indonesia to try and recolonize the country. There has been cases where the Dutch started to abuse the Marshall Plan (The European Recovery Program, ERP, was an American program to help Europe where America gave financial support to help reconstruct European economies after the end of World War II in order to stop the increase of Soviet Communism) to create a new army in Indonesia. The Dutch forces started to control the towns and cities in Java and Sumatra, but couldn’t control villages and the countryside. In September and October of 1945, Europeans and pro Dutch Eurasians were attacked and killed by Indonesian mobs. The Dutch, realizing their weak position during the year, were initially disposed to negotiate with the republic of Japan for some form of commonwealth relationship between the archipelago and the Netherlands. This resulted in the British-brokered Linggajati Agreement, created on November 12, 1946. The agreement provided for Dutch recognition of republican rule on Java and Sumatra, and the Netherlands-Indonesian Union under the Dutch crown. A month later, in December of 1946, the Special Forces Depot (DST) was accused of using arbitrary terror techniques on the Southern Sulawesi region. This caused around 3,000 republicans to be killed after a few weeks. On July 21, 1947, the Dutch started to claim violations of the Linggajati Agreement and sprung what was inoffensively called “police action” against the republic. Dutch troops drove the republicans out of Sumatra and East and West Java, keeping them to the region of Central Java. The international reaction to the police action, however, was negative. The “police action” caused an anti-war march in Amsterdam with 20,000 people and a few days after, young students blew up a bridge to prevent Dutch forces from taking Purwokerto. After a year more of battles and struggles, the Dutch created a state of Jawa Timur [East Java] in occupied areas of East Java. This is believed to have caused a second “police action” by the Dutch, which took place in Yogya without any warning. Yogya then came to the Dutch as well. Indonesia slowly started giving up and started...
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