Jose Rizal published Sobra la Indolencia de los Filipinos on July 15 to September 15, 1890 in five installments through the La Solidaridad, the official newspaper of the Philippine ilustrados(“enlightened ones”) – those who hoped to have a representation of the Filipinos in the Spanish Courts. This essay is also the longest among his essays. Through Rizal’s deep insights of social anthropology, he was able to analyze the factors causing the Filipinos’ indolence. According to him, that was not due to the climate or the absence of stimuli to work but due to the hardships or barriers out of the political and social systems during those times. Rizal stressed on the factors that contributed to the laziness and the slow progress of Filipinos based on the following premises: the participation of the Filipinos in Spain’s wars against the English, Dutch, and Portuguese; and, the teachings of the friars that those who are poor will go to heaven more easily. With this, Filipinos tend to suffer from being poor to reach heaven more easily when they pass away. Rizal also suggested that a brand new educational system be established in Hongkong to train the youth accordingly. Chapter Summaries
 Chapter 1: Admitting the Indolence of the Filipinos
The author admits that indolence indeed takes place in the Filipinos’ lives. However, this cannot be due to the backwardness and troubles of the nation; rather, this is brought by those troubles underwent by the country. Previous researches on this topic involve only affirming or denying, hence never focusing on its causes. One must focus on studying indolence, stressed Rizal, before it can be cured. He then specifies those causes of indolence together with the circumstances leading to them. According to him, the hot climate in the country can indeed be reasonable in causing indolence. Europeans have a different case, since because of the cold climate, they need to work harder. He equates an hour of work in the Philippine’s sun...
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