Transport in Indonesia
All transport modes play a role in Indonesia's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. Road transport is the predominant mode, accounting for about 70 percent of freight ton-km and 82 percent of passenger km. There are four unconnected railway networks in Java and Sumatra dedicated primarily to transport bulk commodities and long-distance passenger traffic. Sea transport is extremely important for economic integration and for domestic and foreign trade. It is well developed, with each of the major islands having at least one significant port city. The role of inland waterways is relatively minor and is limited to certain areas of Eastern Sumatra and Kalimantan. The function of air transport is significant, particularly where land or water transport is deficient or non-existent, and well established, based on an extensive domestic airline network where all major cities can be reached by passenger plane. Roads and Highways
The total length of roads in 2004 reached about 340,000 km; out of which, 34,628 km were under the state responsibility; 649 km toll roads, 37,164 km under provincial responsibility; and the rest, 266,564 km under district responsibility. Indonesia roads Of the total road length, 58 percent is paved. The national road network is in good condition with 95 percent paved and 81 percent in good and fair condition. The provincial road network is also predominantly in good or fair condition. The district rural and urban roads are only 50 percent in reasonable condition. Densely populated Java, with 7 percent of Indonesia’s land area and 62 percent of its population, accounts for 27 percent of the classified road network. At the other end of the spectrum, Maluku and Papua, with 23 percent of the land area and only 2 percent of population, account for 7 percent of the network. Indonesia’s first toll road was opened in 1978 and placed under the management of the state-owned toll road company, Jasa Marga which now has overall responsibility for some 515 km of toll roads. Around 460 km of which are on the island of Java. Since 1987, all proposed toll road projects have been required to be offered to private investors, and so far some 30 percent of the network in operation has been developed by private consortia. The number of motor vehicles registered by the State Police was 19 million in 1999 (excluded Timor Timur) and 27 million in 2003. The motor vehicles in 2003 consisted of 71 percent motorcycles, 13 percent passenger cars, 8 percent trucks, and 3 percent buses. Of the total 3.1 million motor vehicles assembled domestically about 90 percent were motorcycles. Urban Transport
Before the 1997 crisis, major urban transport investments were undertaken. These included toll road developments involving public-private partnerships with significant local private investment. Many of these projects, which were implemented under Build, Operate, and Transfer (BOT) arrangements are located around the metropolitan cities in Java, such as Jakarta, Ciawi, Bogor, Cikampek, Karawang, Surabaya, and Malang. Rapid Bus ServiceDespite rapid infrastructure development in large urban areas, traffic congestion continues to hamper large cities like Jakarta, Bandung, Medan, Surabaya, and many satellite towns like Bogor, Bakasi, and Tangerang. Public transport, including buses, minibuses, and taxis, is commonly used despite poor public transport facilities. The city of Jakarta has implemented a Bus Rapid Transit system on several kilometers on key city route to help ease traffic congestion, particularly at peak times. Car ownership is increasing, following the liberalization of import motor vehicle rules. At least three million locally assembled motorcycles are added each year; transforming vehicular pollution in a serious problem for the largest cities, and a rapidly emerging one among the medium-size cities. Rural Transport
Indonesia rural transportWith more than 292,000 km,...
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