Are deviations of individuals from the average or from one another? Is a trait by which and individual may be distinguished from other individuals.
Nature of Individual Differences
Individuals vary in physical as well as psychological characteristics. Variability range from intra-variability to inter-variability
Intra-variability – concerns differences within the individual. It is also referred to as Trait-variability. Inter-variability – concerns differences among individuals or between individuals with regards to environment.
Characterization of Individual Differences
1.Variability and Normality – Virtually all measures of individuals manifest characteristics that can be distributed in the form of a normal probability curve. 2.Differential rates of growth and learning – These variations can be seen in cognitive abilities, in physical, emotional and moral aspects of growth. 3.Interrelation of traits – the growth of personality for instance, is the result of the continuing interaction of many factors. 4.Hereditary and environmental factors – The Hereditary and environmental contributions can never be completely separated because they are in continuous interplay in the production of every physical and psychological trait.
Factors Affecting Individual Differences
1.Physiological factors – the effects of drugs and alcohol are well-known to alter personality, to influence control and judgement. 2.Cultural influences – these norms affect individual self-concepts as well as social adjustments. 3.Interaction between biological and social factors – An individual being a complex product of many interaction variables is really more than the simple sum of different influences.
Measurement and Evaluation of Individual Differences
Standards or Norms – are based on massive data collected concerning different kinds of behavior. It serves as a basis against which to interpret individual measurements under...